The Female Entrepreneurship: The Comparative Study of Rural and Semi-Urban Sindh Province
Keywords:Personality Traits, Push Factors, Pull Factors, Perceived Access to finance, Institutional Environment, Perceived Access to Professional Network, Government & Non-Government organization Assistance and Female Entrepreneurial Activity
The objective of this paper is to understand the different determinants of the varying rate of female entrepreneurship across rural and semi-urban Sindh. We test different determinants and how they are related to female entrepreneurial activities (FEA) mediated by Individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO). This paper comparatively focuses on various determinants of female entrepreneurship across rural and semi-urban Sindh that influence one's entrepreneurial orientation for executing entrepreneurial activities. The descriptive methodology was employed. We collected data from 200 nascent females from rural and 200 semi-urban females. The survey was carried out using a quantitative approach and utilized Smart PLS for further analysis and model testing. Household composition and early marriages are changing due to changes in occupation. These changes have also resulted in large family sizes, allowing many families to invest less money in businesses due to significant family expenses: feudalism, regulatory entry barriers in informal industries, or poor government assistance. When combined with poor government aid NGOs Assistance develops poor IEO. Resultantly, the minor sector, small Size, poor Growth, less Aspiration, less time Allocation, female-occupied sectors, lower start-up rate and poverty in rural Sindh. This paper enables other female working organizations and policymakers and other agencies to develop non-discriminatory laws; regulatory laws should be simple; ensure representation of rural women at all levels from policy to implementation. The most significant limitation of this paper is that it is just limited to one province.
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