Journal of Development and Social Sciences <h1><a href="">Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</a></h1> <p><strong>Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0.ARL/INC4757)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. is a <strong>Triple-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) en-US Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2709-6254 Implementation of E-Learning in Public and Private Schools: Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The present study aimed to explore the impact of virtual learning on student’s educational progress related to E-learning practices during pandemic, modification of teaching methodology, skills and competencies as well as teaching effectiveness. The study was descriptive survey; in order to investigate the findings the questionnaire was circulated among 500 participants i.e the academic and administrative staff of public and private schools using simple random sampling technique. Data were analyzed by using SPSS. The empirical outcomes of this research work signify that the adoption of virtual-Learning schools drastically improved students' skills towards learning new ideas. There was no significant difference among teachers on gender basis, regarding the student’s competencies, administrative roles, and government initiatives. Moreover, in this research work high level of internal consistency has been pragmatic for scale. These findings advocate that using E-Learning in schools could be an effectual to enhance students learning and teacher’s skill. Government and administration have plenty of digital resources at school level to initiate the digitalization and should start emphasizing on practices of the virtual learning even in the presence of limited resources, not only in the duration of any pandemic but also in future perspectives.</p> Gulnaz Akbar Fasiha Altaf Umar Farooq Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-07 2022-10-07 3 4 01 10 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)01 Effectiveness of Visual Lessons on YouTube during Lockdown in 2nd Wave of Covid -19 for Children with Intellectual Disabilities Studying in Child Welfare Center Perceived by their Parents <p>Due to COVID-19, all academic activities have been moved online and schools have been suspended in 189 nations from April 2020. The current research aimed to determine the effectiveness of visual lessons on YouTube during lockdown 2nd wave of COVID-19 for children with intellectual disabilities studying in child welfare center as perceived by their parents. The population of this study consisted of parents of all children with IDD from the Child Welfare Center Punjab University Lahore. The sample size was 30 parents. A self-developed validated questionnaire formulated on the Likert type scale was administered. Data was impersonally collected after getting permission of school principal. According to the study the effectiveness of video lessons has been experienced by all children with IDD regardless of their age. All mothers and fathers with different qualifications are in favor of video lessons. Results showed that cognitive skills (mean=29.00) are more developed as compared to practical and behavioral skills in response to YouTube visual lessons. We recommend that several kinds of teaching methods and more interactive videos should be used so that children with intellectual disabilities do not get bored.</p> Hina Fazil Rimsha Ramzan Muqaddas Anwar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-15 2022-10-15 3 4 11 18 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)02 Cybersquatting: Violation of Trade Marks, Intellectual Property Laws in Pakistan <p>Internet has substantially expanded, and it has become a widespread platform for commerce and trading. In the case of a company, goodwill refers to the intangible asset. A company's ability to differentiate its goods and services from those offered by other companies in the same industry and to convey any existing goodwill in the market is facilitated by using a trademark. In recent years, many companies have begun to reach out to their clients using online marketplaces such as social media and websites. The domain name of an internet website plays an important function in assisting clients in recognizing a certain company when interacting in cyberspace. The process operates on a "first-come, first-serve basis," any person or company may try to acquire the domain names of already-established enterprises. A practice known as "Cybersquatting”, occurs when individuals register domain names with the fraudulent object of selling to already established companies and operating a company in their name by misinterpreting their domain name. This research examines the notion of cybersquatting in Pakistan, and its effects in globalized society, and how World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) has been playing a significant role in preventing the act of cybersquatting.</p> Naheeda Ali Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 3 4 19 30 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)03 Sociological Study about prevention of drug among Children and Adolescents in Pakistan <p>In Pakistan and all the world use of drug are a serious problem Although some studies have shown short-term benefits from drug-use prevention programs for young adolescents and adults, few have looked at the long-term impacts. Such data is critical for determining how long preventative benefits endure. Inappropriate use of substances, addictions, and dependence are all problems that may be avoided and that disrupt normal healthy functioning. A strong mental, emotional, and behavioral foundation is essential for the growth and development of a person into an effective adult. The study looks into the Sociological study about prevention of substance use of drug among children and adolescents. To explore side effects of drugs in children, adolescents, and young adults. To decrease access and use among children, adolescents, and young adults, The study incorporates qualitative data from secondary source government, magazine, books. This examination clarifies the use of drugs in adolescents and youngsters and its prevention methods that can be performed to control and prevent drugs use among children. Not only should more study investigate the levels of drug use, but it should also investigate the effects that are encountered, such as the signs and symptoms of substance use disorders in later life.</p> Qurat-ul-ain Rana Muhammad Ali Tarar Zoia Khan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 3 4 31 37 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)04 An Investigation to Study the Intersection of Fashion and Architecture through Translating Community’s Fashion Trends and Culture in Architectural Realm <p>This research paper is an attempt to formulate a conceptual foundation to redefine the approach towards designing a communal commercial setting within the contextual periphery of women oriented trendy site such as “Gora bazar in downtown Saddar Peshawar”. To achieve this objective a three-tiered analysis framework was devised. It encapsulated studying the contextual responsive and site sensitive representation of an architectural vocabulary. This was analyzed with reference to the fashion trends of the target community. Rejuvenating community’s skin by its “genius loci” will be devising a spatial system respecting the retrospective and prospective setting for the user or communal representatives. Strong communal experiential space in a traditionally and contemporarily strengthened spatial arena, with the proposed architecture and the contextual tactility and visual effectiveness of the place is one of the prime objectives of this exercise. How a communal setup encounters their routine activity and behavioral patterns carrying a specific skin of fashion, trending, and people. The attempt to bring aesthetics together with commercial nature in such a state so that one can appreciate them together and understand that architecture can be fashioned and translated in formulating a successful environmental translation when you decide to bring outcome with disturbing the sagacious land setting given. To idealize a framework or a mechanism that shall enhance the awareness to respect the sensitivity and delicacy of fragile female nature at the peripheral arena of urban scape.</p> Saman Mashal Muhammad Faisal Rehman Yasmeen Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2022-10-22 2022-10-22 3 4 38 50 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)05 Digital Evidence and its Admissibility under Pakistani Law <p>Digital evidence is much important in current modern world due to its diversity, accuracy and complexity. The world is agreed upon the point of admissibility of digital evidence, as enlightened from the domestic and international legislations, from one hand, the laws are presuming the digital evidence as admissible piece of evidence, on the other hand they directed every authority, not to negate the admissibility of digital evidence, merely on the ground that it is not in the form that is substantive and tangible in nature. In this context, this paper analyses the admissibility of digital evidence from the perspective of Pakistani law. It discusses the historical background, legislation on the subject and its presentation before the Court at the national level. The research methodology used in this paper is analytical. Relevant laws on digital evidence are analyzed.</p> Rashida Zahoor Sardar M.A. Waqar Khan Arif Bushra Bannian Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2022-10-22 2022-10-22 3 4 51 60 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)06 Impact of Constructive Pedagogy on Students Academic Achievements at Secondary School Level in Kotli AJ&K <p>Constructivism represents one of the big ideas in education. Its implications for how teachers teach and learn to teach are enormous.The purpose of this research study was to explore teachers’ perception regarding pedagogy based on constructive paradigm for students learning and to find out the impact of constructive pedagogy on students’ academic achievements. The study was descriptive in nature and quantitative research design was used. Government secondary schools from Kotli were the population of this research. Simple random sampling technique was used and 20% sample was randomly selected from the aforementioned population. The study is delimited to public secondary schools of district Kotli. For pilot testing process forty teachers were randomly selected and these teachers were also included in final study. The data was collected through five point Likert scale questionnaires and analyzed by using SPSS software. Major conclusions of the study were; i) constructivist pedagogy are effective inenhancing the students learning, ii) students’ decision making ability could be improved through constructivist pedagogy, ii) there was a positive relationship between constructive pedagogy and students learning and academic achievement while major recommendations were; teachers should adopt strategies that involve constructivist principles in order to improve students’ learning and academic achievements and teachers should provide appropriate guidance to their students in this regards.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nauman Saeed Nazir Haider Shah Khatiba Akhter Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2022-10-22 2022-10-22 3 4 61 70 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)07 Comparing Pakistani EFL Learners’ Beliefs about Written Constructive Feedback and their Impact on L2 Writing Accuracy <p>The current study examines the impact of students’ beliefs on using writing CF. By comparing students’ contexts and investigating beliefs about written CF, this study investigated the topic from cognitive perspective on cognitive and social perspective. 163 university students at Khwaja Fareed UEIT, Pakistan were participants of this study. Students were placed into three groups: direct, indirect and metalinguistic CF (urban students) and two groups: direct and indirect CF (rural). Data collected through questionnaire and writing prompts in different pre and post-tests and delayed-post-tests were statically analyzed on SPSS version 28. Findings revealed that there were marginal differences in beliefs of both groups of the students and types of the written CF that is the most effective were different between urban and rural students. Besides, beliefs about written CF were found to impact uptake and retention of written CF more on rural students as compared to the urban students.</p> Mehmood Ul Hassan Asma Abdul Aziz Muhammad Pervaiz Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2022-10-24 2022-10-24 3 4 71 83 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)08 The Impact of Parental Socioeconomic Background on the Schooling and Academic Performance of Students in District Dir Upper: A Qualitative Analysis <p>Children’s schooling is important for their personal growth and plays a vital role in socioeconomic development of a nation. Parents’ socioeconomic background plays a vital role in shaping children’s schooling and impacts their academic achievement. Children of the upper class parents have enough resources available for fulfilling the requirements of their studies, while children of poor parents have lesser resources to support their education. This study aims at empirically diagnosing the relationship between parental socio-economic background and children (students) schooling and academic achievements. The study was conducted in Tehsil Dir of District Dir Upper, while applying qualitative research deign. The primary data was collected from a sample of twenty four (24) purposively selected respondents. The respondents comprised of two different categories i.e. 12 students selected from Class X to Class XII from the Govt. Higher Secondary School Gandigar Dir Upper and 12 Parents including 06 from poor family background and 06 from rich family background. Primary data was obtained through interview, using semi-structured interview guide. The study found that children of poor parents are not performing well in their academic career as they have lesser opportunities and resources. They also remain absent from school to help their parents in agriculture field, business and homework etc. Further, the study revealed that rich parents have positive impacts on the academic achievements of their children. The study suggests provision of equal educational opportunities to children of both poor and rich families. The study also suggests supporting the poor students with scholarships, technical and free education so to avoid widening the existing gap among rich and poor students.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sana Ullah Muhammad Faisal Rehman Basit Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 3 4 84 93 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)09 Microfinance for Poverty Reduction in Pakistan: A Sectoral Analysis <p>The study analyzes the impact of microfinance provided by Khushhali Microfinance Bank Limited (KMBL) for poverty reduction in district Sargodha. It explores explicitly the sectors in which credit usage is more helpful for poverty alleviation. For this purpose, we collected the primary data of 300 households from KMBL. The findings revealed that microfinance played a vital role in poverty eradication. The binary logistic regression implied that males were more likely to be poor than female borrowers. There was a negative and statistically significant relationship between educational attainment of the respondent and poverty level of the household. The existence of the market and poverty level were negatively correlated. Most importantly, the trading and services sectors had a significant contribution to poverty reduction among all the sectors. Hence, there is a need to increase female participation in the credit program. Special attention should be given to the borrowers to utilize their loans in the trading and services sectors, which are more helpful in coming out of poverty.</p> Muhammad Ijaz Amjad Masood Sarwar Awan Muhammad Waqas Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2022-11-03 2022-11-03 3 4 94 103 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)10 The Effects of Situational and Contextual Variables on Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety: An Investigation of Pakistani Tertiary EFL Students’ Perceptions <p>Foreign language anxiety is a type of anxiety that is specific to language learning process. Anxiety can not only impact the language students’ negatively but it can also enforce them to give up their studied (Horwitz, 2017; Malik et al., 2020; Milan, 2019). In Pakistan, there is a lack of research in the field of language anxiety and the majority of language teachers and students are not fully cognizant of its existence and effects on language learning (Samad, 2014). Most of the previous studies have investigated anxiety from classroom perspective and there is a lack of studies exploring anxiety from outside of the classroom perspective (Marwan, 2017). Therefore, this study is an attempt to understand language learning anxiety by investigating it in relation to various contextual variables to contribute to the existing body of knowledge. This study explored 100 BS English students’ language anxiety at University of Baluchistan. It aimed to investigate Pakistani tertiary EFL students’ perceptions when speaking English in class and outside of class. The study employed both quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structured interview) tools to collects data. The findings clearly suggested that students experience more anxiety when speaking English in class than speaking English outside of class. The study suggests that a friendly and supportive teacher, gentle error correction, relaxed and social classroom environment and incorporation of activities that don’t require students to be singled out may alleviate students’ anxiety.</p> Barishna Qasim Abdus Samad Karishma Qasim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 3 4 104 116 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)11 Ageing and Social Participation: Empirical Evidence from Sohan, Islamabad <p>Ageing is global phenomenon. The conception of social participation is highly valued in old age. Pakistan is the world's sixth most populous country, with 6.7 percent of its people over the age of 65. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of familial assistance among the elderly in Sohan village, Islamabad. A total of 97 older people, aged 60 and up, were interviewed using a structured research technique. A structured tool was developed for data collection. Data was entered in CSPro and analyzed in SPSS. Data reveals that intensity of social participation in old age was significantly connected, and there is significant relationship found among age and social participation. Which shows that with every increasing year the level of social participation is reduced. It is undeniable that the ageing population requires significant governmental and private attention in order to maintain their well-being in daily life. Medical advances allowed them to stay on the planet for extended periods of time, but the side effects were severe.</p> Aftab Ahmed Sarfraz Khan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 3 4 117 124 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)12 Metacognitive Skills: Investigating the Effect on Pupil Teachers’ Written Task Performance <p>The current study was conducted for investigating the effect of the Metacognitive skills on pupil teachers’ written assignment performance. The study was executed while using the Quasi-Experimental nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. The two sections of B.Ed (Honors) Semester-I (each consisting of 30 students) were selected conveniently for this study. Before the intervention, both of the selected groups have been pretested and there was no statistical difference found among them concerning their Metacognitive Skills. The intervention (Cooperative Learning approach) was given to the experimental group whereas the controlled group was given the conventional treatment. The intervention duration consisted of one semester only. There were five Metacognitive skills that the researcher intended to develop. The “Planning” and “Information Management” skills were focused during the first two weeks of each month whereas the rest of the skills “Monitoring, “Debugging” and “Evaluation” were focused during the last two weeks. The researcher used a performance test named “Metacognitive Skills Assessment Tool” (MSAT) adapted from (Ali, Siddiqui, &amp; Tatlah, 2020) comprising 14 items (representing Metacognitive skills) to measure the prospective teachers’ skills. Furthermore, the Rubrics for Metacognitive Skills Assessment Tool (RMSAT) were used to rate the prospective teachers’ performance taken on MSAT. These were also adopted from (Ali, Siddiqui, &amp; Tatlah, 2020). On the other hand, the pupil teachers’ written assignment performance has been measured with the help of the “Assessment Criteria for Report Writing (ACRW)” developed by (Siddiqui, 2016). Base on the results taken from Pearson’s r and Linear Regression analysis, it has been concluded that the Metacognitive skills have a statistically significantly high effect on prospective teachers’ Metacognitive skills development.</p> Muhammad Shahid Zulfiqar Ali Zain Idrees Mamoona Asghar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-06 2022-11-06 3 4 125 136 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)13 Impact of the Course “Introduction to Education” on Learning of Undergraduate Students <p>The Course Introduction to Education was launched in the Department of Economics at Government College Women University Sialkot in September, 2020. Since then, it is being taught in a number of departments in this university. This study was conducted to see the overall impact of Introduction to Education on Cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains of learning at Undergraduate level. Question papers made by six faculty members of department of education were used for data collection along with a self-developed questionnaire. Learning outcomes were categorized in three domains of learning as cited above according to Bloom’s Taxonomy of instructional objectives. The Course Introduction had a significant impact on the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of learning. The students learnt the basic concepts, contemporary trends of education &amp; teaching methodology. They were equipped with the essential pedagogical skills and competencies. They learnt to develop Audio-Visual aids. They learnt different theories of “Learning”. They came to know about different “Soft-skills” among students. It is suggested that the Course Introduction to Education may be taught in other public as well as private universities of Pakistan with a little modifications.</p> Muhammad Latif Salbia Abbas Razia Anjum Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-07 2022-11-07 3 4 137 142 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)14 Proposed Economic Empowerment Plan based on Needs Identified by the Teachers and Parents of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Studying in Punjab Province <p>People with disabilities experience multiple forms of discrimination and, as a result, are less likely to access productive and decent work than people without disabilities. They are more likely to work for low wages, informally and precariously. Multiple intersecting factors restrict the economic empowerment of people with disabilities, including inadequate laws and policies, discriminatory social norms, and unequal access to resources, information, and networks. This study was conducted to explore the economic empowerment needs and opportunities for individuals with IDD to enable them for independently living. A convenient sampling technique was applied for data collection, and data was obtained from 200 special education teachers and 100 parents of IDD children from different cities of Punjab. Two survey questionnaires were developed on the Likert-five-point scale for parents and teachers. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistical tools in SPSS. This study revealed that no schools practically are involved in any community-based rehabilitation initiatives. These young people have difficulty obtaining jobs in the area since it is unfavorable to them. These young people are not receiving any assistance from their environment in becoming financially independent. They need strong policies and strategies for their independent living and economic empowerment from the government.</p> Hina Fazil Maryam Aslam Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-08 2022-11-08 3 4 149 164 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)15 Online Behavioral Advertising: Do Awareness and Privacy Concerns Protect the Users <p>The Internet is subjugated by free web services that use advertising and other marketing tools for revenue generation. Targeted online advertising is among most extensively used tactic by these websites in which selective advertisements are displayed based on user’s browsing behavior, socio-demographics, and interests. This trend has raised concerns due to the serious threats to the privacy. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the association between awareness regarding Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA) and Privacy Concerns among Users, the effect of awareness on buying behavior and to seek knowledge gap regarding awareness of OBA between socioeconomic segments. Data was collected via online survey (N=300). Findings confirmed a strong relationship between level of awareness regarding OBA, privacy concerns and effects of this association on attitudes and buying behavior of users (N=300, p &lt; 0.05). Similarly, difference in awareness levels of users belonging to middle and upper-middle class was also found that confirmed the prevailing knowledge gap in the society (N=300,p&lt; 0.05). The study highlights the need to design of recommends the academia to priotize digital media literacy of the users and policy makers in designing strategy related to privacy protection</p> Shabana Asgher Faiza Latif Namra Tahir Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-08 2022-11-08 3 4 165 174 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)16 The Effect of Financial and Preferential Treatment Benefit on Customer Satisfaction in B2B Marketplace. A Study of Courier Industry in Quetta <p>Relationship marketing is about enhancing, maintaining and establishing long-term relationships with customers and other stakeholders to attain organizational goals. There is a lack of evidence in existing relationship marketing literature regarding which relationship benefits enhance customer satisfaction and work as switching barriers in B2B marketplace in developing countries. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of three relational benefits (financial benefit, human interaction benefit and preferential treatment benefit) on satisfaction with the inclusion of mediating variable (switching barrier) and moderating variable (transactional volume). Quantitative research with the relational design was opted carried out the research. Three hundred self-administered questionnaires were distributed to the clients (business organizations) of courier companies (TCS and DHL) operating in Quetta-City. A proportionate and convenient sampling approach is used for data collection. The relationship officer of each client filled out the questionnaire. Hypotheses were tested through regression and the Hayes approach. Findings show that preferential treatment benefit is more linked with satisfaction, and switching barrier leads to human interaction and financial benefit. Moreover, the switching barrier significantly mediates the relationship between two benefits (preferential and human interaction) and customer satisfaction. The moderating effect of transaction volume was only significant with human interaction benefit. The switching barrier significantly differs between low and high human interaction at low transaction volume compared to high transaction volume. Thus manager needs to focus on preferential treatment and human interaction based on transaction volume in B2B marketplace.</p> Noor-ul-Ain Sadaat Baloch Muhammad Danish Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 3 4 175 188 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)17 Changing Paradigms: Criminal Responsibility in Mental Health Laws of Pakistan and UN Conventions on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities <p>An individual is liable for his/her wrong doings against fellow members of the society. However, in certain situations he/she can be exempted from his/her actions, especially in a situation whereby he/she cannot differentiate in right and wrong due to his/her mental incapability. In the modern era, ample development has been gained in the field of mental health and an effective mechanism has been provided as to observe and implement the principles of responsibility between crime and mental illness. Schizophrenia has been commonly referred as severe cognitive and affective deficits that heavily influence empathy, understanding, reason and decision making, but also control of compulsiveness. Although there is relation between mental illness and lacks or decrease of legal accountability, their relationship is also bound by social, cultural, demographic, developmental, and clinical factors. For criminal liability both mens rea and actus reus are important ingredients. However, in case of Schizophrenia the element of mens rea is missing, which exempt the mentally ill person from the consequences of crime. A qualitative method of research is conducted to evaluate the criminal responsibility of a mentally ill patient. Upon observation, it has been discovered that laws related to mental health in Pakistan lacks compatibility with international conventions and Islamic law, so there is a dire need to revamp the existing legislation and a phenomenon of non-responsibility of a mentally ill patient should be followed as a paradigm shift.</p> Muhammad Ifzal Mehmood Hamaish Khan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 3 4 189 198 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)18 Impact of Working Capital Management on Firm Performance: A Comparative Analysis between Technology and Communication Sector Versus Power Generation and Distribution Sector Listed in Pakistan Stock Exchange <p>The study empirically examines the specific measures of working capital management with organizational profitability. The study also compares the results of the technology and communication sector and power generation and distribution sector listed in the Pakistan stock exchange. The empirical data used in this research is secondary data taken from annual reports of companies listed in the Pakistan stock exchange for the period of 2013 to 2019. The study uses return on asset and return on equity as dependent variables, current ratio, cash conversion cycle, accounts payable turnover ratio, accounts receivable turnover ratio, and inventory turnover ratio as independent variables, leverage, and size as control variables. The findings reveal that the technology and communication sector performs better than the power generation and distribution sector. Managers should take critical decisions to run business operations smoothly and to handle their working capital in a more efficient way that will result in value creation of the organization.</p> Muhammad Kamran Sabir Hira Moeen Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 3 4 199 207 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)19 Countering Violent Extremism and Combating Models in Pakistan <p>Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) has become redoubtable task to combat the amorphous nature of conflicts around the globe. Extremism is a daunting phenomenon which requires persistent efforts at societal, political and socio-economic level to counter the recurrence, resurgence and involvement of hostile extraneous agencies to disrupt the peace in Pakistan. The study familiarizes the reader with the application of non-kinetic measures to counter violent extremism through deradicalization and undercutting the ideological and violent discourse narratives. This study is an endeavour to construct a context-based and multi pronged model of countering violent extremism in Pakistan. Counter violent extremism (CVE) helps in combating the scourge of terrorism through countering the extremist narrative, prevention, rehabilitation and after care programmes of terrorists. This research helps in devising the CVE models to deal extremism on Macro, Meso and Micro level. The research methodology is qualitative, based on the study of research journals, article, books, newspapers, non-structured interviews and personal reflections.</p> Muhammad Rizwan Bhatti Ali Shan Shah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 3 4 208 220 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)20 Exploring the Importance of Integrating Technology to Teach English in Public Sector Engineering University of Sindh, Pakistan <p>The study aimed to highlight the impact of technological integration on engineering students to teach English in one of the public sector engineering university in Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. The study adopted the qualitative design and data was collected through an interview. Further, the collected data was analyzed through the content analysis. It was to find the effectiveness technology usage in learning and teaching of English language amongst the engineers at undergraduate level in Sindh. The study also intends to demonstrate that how the English language can be enhanced effectively through use of technology by the engineers in their future. The study stated through the results that English language is considered the global language, where students of engineering context need to have the competency. The learning of English enhances the efficiency of the engineers and technological integration makes them to learn English more efficiently through the use of technological gadgets. They improve capacity of visualization in students and teachers. Therefore, the digital tools proved to increase the learning more efficiently.</p> Ali Siddiqui Ishfaque Ahmed Abbasi Syed Hyder Raza Shah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-18 2022-11-18 3 4 221 229 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)21 Educational Development and Educational Policies in Pakistan from 1971 to 1977: An Analysis <p>Education is the most important tool available in modern times for the improvement of civilizations and nationalities. Since the country's founding, education and education policies in Pakistan have both been subject to continuous development and adjustment. The primary objective of this research paper is to gain an understanding of the important developments that occurred in educational policies under the administration of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto from 1971 to 1977. Finding the outcomes of the research is accomplished through the application of qualitative research methods and procedures. Data for this research is collected both in the form of primary and secondary sources. The educational system was one of the areas that was impacted by Bhutto's nationalization policy. The educational reforms have been considered within the context of the nationalization paradigm; nonetheless, the educational reforms have had a more significant influence on the education system in Pakistan. It is recommended that the education policies to be implemented with true spirit and innovations to be introduced in educational policies.</p> Yu Jinshan Mehboob Hussain Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-18 2022-11-18 3 4 230 238 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)22 Corruption Prevention Efforts in China under the Leadership of Xi Jinping <p>The aims of this study are to understand the corruption prevention efforts in China by the Communist Party of China with the guidance of ideology. Corruption exists in every country, everywhere and China is well aware of this curse. The Chinese leadership has learned from history and they have clear goals to make China a prosperous country. China has a history of corruption prevention efforts but the current anti-corruption movement under the leadership of Xi Jinping is more attractive. Corruption in the country can destabilize the country and party so it has become the most important task for the Chinese leadership to eliminate this problem from the country. This study is based on qualitative methods and investigates Xi Jinping’s anti-corruption efforts and his goals for the country. The results of this study reveal that eliminating corruption is more important for the leadership because there is no other choice for the party if they want to make the country stabilize and prosperous. The leadership needs to maintain public trust and support in order to make a healthy state which is possible by eliminating corruption and illegal financial activities from the country.</p> Mehwish Muzaffar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-20 2022-11-20 3 4 239 243 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)23 Colonialism and Social Change: Structure of Society and its Construction during Colonial Period in Chagai District <p>As a result of establishing a centralized administration in South Asia, colonial powers were able to introduce new policies and practices that radically transformed the lives of the population they subjugated. Balochistan was an outlier in that its society didn't change much while a few, the aristocratic elite, were changed. In this piece, I will make an effort to learn about and understand the colonial-era culture and society of the Chagai area. The situation was the same in the district Chagai, where only the upper class had access to the tribal system. This paper delves further into the history, anthropological development, religion and religious shifts, language, education, and economics of the Chagai people. The main objective of this article is to understand the process of socio-cultural transformation during the colonial period in Balochistan which had been stagnant in the arena of culture and society. The research methods applied in this research study is the qualitative and historical research methods. The results of the research shows that the culture and society was not changed at large rather than an elite group was created.</p> Bashir Ahmed Mohammad Javed Sarparah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 3 4 244 253 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)24 Healthcare Behavior, Utilization and Associated Factors in the Rural Areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan <p>Health care seeking behavior, utilization and its associated are important for the economic development of a country. However, the subject has not caught enough attention in Pakistan. Therefore, current research study is implemented in the rural areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The study used mixed method approach and data were collected from 278 respondents and 20 key informants. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The use of formal health facilities was found a bit high (56%) as compared to the informal healthcare facilities (44%). The private healthcare utilization was high as compared to government healthcare facilities. Gender, education, income, and location were found as the important factors affecting healthcare utilization in the study area. It is concluded that although rural people tend to utilize formal healthcare, but still the informal system is active. Therefore, the government healthcare system must emphasize on quality and timely service provision.</p> Shaista Naz Mahnoor Aslam Robina Karim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-22 2022-11-22 3 4 254 265 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)25 Innovation in Coin Jewellery fashioned with Enameling and Semi-Precious Stones <p>The study’s main objective was to collect coins which are currently unpopular or unfashionable and convert them into beautiful ornamented pieces of jewellery. Coins are one of the main material sources for Historians and are a good source to know about administrative history. Coins at first appear to be purely decorative elements in Indian jewellery and on costumes and have emotional significance. This exploratory study required exploring the different techniques of enamelling. It was found that champlevé was the best suitable technique as it can be done without disturbing the motifs on the coins. The study is very experimental because of the amalgamation of Meenakari and coin jewellery, and to find its acceptance among the people. Product development included six stages: structure formation, polishing, stone setting, electroplating &amp;meenakari. It was found that enamelling is possible on silver, gold &amp;copper coins, but in some cases, the characteristics of coin metal have to be carefully studied. It is recommended that more designs should be made to preserve the old coins and increase their aesthetic value and historical significance.</p> Manpreet Kushwaha Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-23 2022-11-23 3 4 266 278 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)26 Historic Urban Squares as Traffic Islands: A Case of Regal Chowk, Mall Road Lahore, Pakistan <p>The research article is an effort to identify the features which are responsible to fetch changes in the historic character of these public spaces. The core objective of this paper is to review the causes of the transformation from traditional to modernity to provide social,<br>Economic and environmental benefits to the public. Historic urban squares are sitting rooms for communal activities and symbolize the community in which they are positioned. Urbanization in the form of Urban sprawl shattered the historic environment and these squares / chowks were ruined and malformed into traffic islands. Case study method has been used to study the selected area, Regal Chowk Mall Road Lahore. The current situation of Regal Chowk reflects the amazing blend of traditional and modern architectural styles due to the increased commercialization. Analyzing the constraints, conclusions has been drawn to develop a framework for planned interventions in the historic urban environment. </p> Asia Jabeen Mazhar Munir Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 3 4 279 289 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)27 Turkmenistan Afghanistan Pakistan India Gas Pipeline and Foreign Policy of Pakistan <p>Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan India gas pipeline project is a component of an extensive plan to develop Asia’s interconnected energy systems. The Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan pipeline has a significant impact on energy security and regional integration in South Asia. This gas pipeline project can address the growing energy demand of the region. However, due to the volatility in the political landscape of South Asia and the complexity of large-scale energy projects, the project is facing a number of critical challenges that need the focus of the regional partners and stakeholders. The limited literature on the TAP gas pipeline project has focused on security hurdles to the projects from the member countries’ perspective. The research study found that the main hurdle to executing the TAP gas pipeline project in Pakistan is the country’s internal issues, a lack of investments, lack of financial resources, international pressure, the country’s regional issues and the dynamics of changing regional situations. The research study is proposed to be useful for policymakers to evaluate the implication of energy import dependency and to frame foreign policy.</p> Bibi Saira Aisha Javed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-26 2022-11-26 3 4 290 298 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)28 Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth of Pakistan: Solow Growth Model Approach <p>This study aims to analyze the Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth of Pakistan using Solow Growth Model Approach. For this purpose, the timeseries data has been utilized over the period from 1976 to 2021 for Pakistan. Gross Domestic Product have been used as dependent variable, Debt Service, External Debt, Exports, Imports, Gross Capital Formation and Population Growth as independent variables. Ordinary Least Square method investigated the study existence of statistically significant relationship between Gross Domestic Product and Debt Service, External Debt, Exports, Imports, Gross Capital Formation and Population Growth. The results of the OLS analysed that the Debt Service, External Debt, Exports, Import and Gross Capital Formation are contacted and to discuss that they have recommended significantly correlated with dependent variable GDP. The study provides specific evidence to policymakers that increased External Debt on Economic Growth contributes to increased countries economic growth</p> Jawad Khan Amila Rafique Nawal Rehman Yousaf Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-26 2022-11-26 3 4 299 308 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)29 The Dynamics of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) <p>The CPEC project is the outcome of the cordial relationship between China and Pakistan. The study explored the dynamics of the CPEC and One Belt One Road (OBOR) The objective of the study is to examine the role of Pakistan, as frontline state, and its’ expectations from Gwadar Port by connecting with China's Xinjiang Province. The progress and growth of its various development sectors, like energy sector, road and railway infrastructure and finally the energy sector is expecting in Pakistan inspite of facing issues like financial problems, political instability and conflicting situation over the special economic zones of the CPEC project and finally internal security. The research article is based on qualitative methodology and used the published literature review as secondary source. This article has accessed the economic impacts of the project positive at the regional and global level. It is recommended that the role of the regional and international stake holders should be on development framework.</p> Sumaira Khizar Rana Eijaz Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-30 2022-11-30 3 4 309 321 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)30 Chinese Stance on Kashmir Dispute: An Over View <p>Kashmir issue was a left over by history and exists before the proclamation of China as People Republic of China. China that is the major regional power and second largest economy of the world is concerned over the peace and prosperity of the region. The peace of region was always on stake due to the lingering of Kashmir dispute. A number of factors have enhanced the significance of Chinese stance towards Kashmir dispute e.g. the geographical proximity, as international and regional power, and occupation of some part of Kashmir territory (Aksai Chin and territory ceded by Pakistan to China in 1963). Chinese stance on this dispute varies over different periods of time. There are a number of factors that affect the stance of China to resolve this dispute. It is an attempt to highlight the significance of Chinese stance to resolve this dispute and factors behind the change in its stance.</p> Unsa Jamshad Muhammad Abdullah Amar Jahangir Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-30 2022-11-30 3 4 322 329 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)31 Emergence of Act East Policy: A Threat to the China’s Imperialism in Asian Pacific Region <p>This research paper focuses upon the dynamics of India’s Act East policy as an emerging threat to china’s security in the Indian Ocean region. Modi’s policy to build infrastructure in South-East Asian states with the execution of Act East strategy. India’s has been closely watching the China’s presence in the Indo-pacific region. To keep in mind this scenario India’s effort to improve her image in international affairs. The rising power of India as her evolving foreign policy towards the economic powers of the East and engagements in the direction of Asian Pacific region has been more progressive. To counter the China’s strategic development and economic advancement towards the Oceania region, that commonly reflected under the String of Pearls policy. In this framework, this paper would analyze India’s policy for IOR islands, Quad collaboration and the role of Indian North-Eastern states to strengthening their socio-economic and cultural ties with neighboring border-states.</p> Zainab Iftikhar Iram Khalid Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-30 2022-11-30 3 4 330 338 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)32 Covid-19 Uncertainty Impact on Exchange Rate: The Case of Pakistan <p>This study has explored the link between Covid-19 uncertainty and the exchange rate of the dollar in terms of Pakistani rupees. High-frequency daily data has been taken from 31 December 2019 to 28 April 2021 to evaluate the relationship between these two variables. Covid-19 has affected the badly international market price but it is less explored in the Pakistani market regarding exchange rate volatility. The VAR model has been applied to explore the link. VAR model is used because in the VAR model all variables are endogenous. The results of the model demonstrate that Covid-19 uncertainty affected the exchange rate of Pakistan in the first lag but insignificant impact in the second lag. When Covid-19 uncertainty increases, demand for the dollar also increases, as the dollar is a stable currency; therefore, the exchange rate of the dollar in terms of rupees increases. Government policy announcements can reduce this Covid-19 uncertainty.</p> Rabia Kausar Abdul Rashid Maria Saddique Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-30 2022-11-30 3 4 339 344 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)33 Linking Emotional Intelligence to Employee Performance: Investigating the Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction <p>Purpose of the study is to explore the mediating effect of job satisfaction between emotional intelligence and employee performance. Moreover, the objective of conducting this study is to assess the relationships between the components of emotional intelligence and employee performance. Many researchers claimed that Leaders with high emotional intelligence directly affect the employees' emotions and organization climate. online survey approached is used to collect the perceptions of employees working in the banking sector of Pakistan. The sample size of 207 is selected through simple random sampling. The results of this study concludes that all the components of emotional intelligence have positive and significant relationship with the employee performance. Moreover, the mediating role of job satisfaction is proved significantly. The employees need to update and involve themselves in the trainings of emotional intelligence to improve their knowledge, skills and abilities.</p> Muhammad Waqas Maharvi Shaheen Tabussam Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-30 2022-11-30 3 4 345 357 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)34 Oppression among Female Nurses: A Concept Analysis <p>This article aims to describe the concept of oppression, its facets, oppression theory and psychological characteristics of the oppressed for understanding of this phenomenon. Nurses are the major human capital in healthcare organizations. They are continuously struggling for professional dignity and honor they actually deserve despite spending sleepless nights in curing and caring the sick one. Nursing profession face discrimination, exploitation, struggle for existence, disrespect from their own colleagues and physicians instead of receiving respect, recognition and reward. This paper is a review paper and for this concept paper data collection consisted of electronic databases. Literature revealed negative outcomes of oppression including dissatisfaction, decreased workforce performance, self-hatred behavior, workplace bullying, horizontal violence, submissive aggressive syndrome and intention to leave. This article suggests corrective strategies to redesign and upgrade this profession as a respected one</p> Nadia Noor Maryam Jamil Yasmeen Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-30 2022-11-30 3 4 358 369 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)35 Impact of Panic Buying Behaviours on Global Food Chain during <p>During a pandemic, panic buying behaviour is one of the causes of supply chain disruption. This study aims to explore the impact of panic-buying behaviour on the global food chain. The analytical study is selected, data is collected with a 100-sample size and a quantitative research technique is applied to investigate an association &amp; dependency between panicbuying behaviour and the food supply chain through SPSS. The results of the regression illustrate that 76.1% strong correlation &amp; 58 %dependency between panic buying behaviour and the food supply chain during the pandemic as compared to 88.3% very strong correlation &amp; 78% dependency between panic buying behaviour and the food supply chain before the pandemic. These results are successfully validated through criteria validity and the reliability test is 0.81 which is highly accepted and reliable. This proves that there is an impact of panic buying behaviour on the global food supply chain during pandemic and it is recommended that supply chain resilience is a way to minimize panic buying behaviour through the latest technology.</p> Syed Danish Bukhari Irfan Zafar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 3 4 370 379 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)36 Development of Critical Thinking Skills of Secondary School Students through Science Curriculum: Teachers’ Perceptions <p>The present study was conducted to investigate the development of critical thinking skills in students through secondary school science curriculum from teachers’ perspective. New science curriculum has been implemented and teachers being the stake holders are involved in practical implementation of the curriculum. A five point likert type scale having reliability value 0.84 was used in order to find the teachers’ perceptions, whereas its response rate was 89%. Mean, standard deviation and t-test were utilized as statistical tools for analysis of data. Teachers’ perceptions regarding development of critical thinking skills in science students were positive. No significant difference was found in the views of male and female as well as in different subject teachers. It is recommended that science teachers should encourage the students to ask questions as it creates a habit of inquiry and arrange group discussion among students in order to further develop critical thinking skills in students.</p> Nabila Younis Zafar Khan Samina Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 3 4 380 390 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)37 GRIT: A Non-Cognitive Attribute of University Students <p>Individuals with the passion and perseverance to work and study extensively despite obstacles and hardship to attain a set of objectives are more likely to succeed than others who lack comparable characteristics. Grit is a personality attribute that predicts success and performance in higher education. The purpose of this study was to examine university students' grit and demographic differences. The study was quantitative, and data from 1,230 randomly chosen university respondents were gathered using a survey method. Duckworth's Grit scale was used to assess the degree of grit and its demographic variables. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, means, and Standard Deviation) and inferential statistics (independent sample-test t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Post Hoc Tukey) were used to analyze the data and draw conclusions for the study. Findings demonstrated that grit level was medium and female students were more gritty than male students. Commerce students have more power of grit than science and arts students. Similarly, MPhil students who were more experienced had more control of grit than their juniors.</p> Muhammad Jehanghir Rafaqat Ali Akbar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 3 4 391 405 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)38 Financial Statement and Ratio Analysis of Force Motors and Yamaha Motors: An Empirical Study <p>The money-related investigation is one of the successful apparatuses which is utilized for looking at the current status of the inner company. With the assistance of monetary examination company’s forecasts, their request within the showcase, and companies foresee their future pattern and dangers and challenges confronted by the company too. So for that reason. This ponder distinguishes a comparative money-related examination of force motors and YAMAHA motors both companies make items of transportation which are used in our daily life so ups and down within the economy makes stress sometimes or not on both companies. Companies make items of transportation like tempo, traveler, 17 sitter tempo, and bikes. Scotties .so this paper presented for comparing both company's financial statements such as income statements, balance sheets, and cash flow statements. For further information, the financial ratios also found to better know about it. This study concludes that in Pakistan and India motor companies are earns handsome money and profits by fulfilling the sustainable needs of its customers.</p> Ahsan Ul Haque Shaikh Sadaqat Ali Raza Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-03 2022-12-03 3 4 406 416 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)39 Impact of Transformational Leadership, Work Engagement, Helping Behavior on Job Performance: Evidence from Islamic Banks of Hyderabad, Pakistan <p>Aim of this study is to examine the role of transformational leadership, work engagement and helping behavior on job performance in Islamic banks of Hyderabad, Pakistan. For achieving these objectives of study, cross-sectional data gathered from middle level employees through printed questionnaire. Total 250 printed questionnaires distributed out of which 200 printed questionnaires data cleaned and used for data analysis. Smart PLS version 3 used for analysis of data. Findings, of this study revealed all studied variables including transformational leadership, work engagement and helping behavior found to have positive and significant impact on job performance in Islamic banks of Hyderabad, Pakistan. However, the work engagement has impact that is more significant on job performance with respect to other independent variables due to higher beta value. Based on the limited knowledge of authors, this is a first study which attempted to identify the role of transformational leadership, work engagement and helping behavior on job performance in Islamic banks of Hyderabad, Pakistan.</p> Dodo Khan Alias Khalid Malokani Farzana Munir Asif Mehmood Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-03 2022-12-03 3 4 417 424 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)40 Cointegration Analysis of Triple Deficits: An Indicator Saturation Approach <p>The objective of this study to examine the econometric technique of the triple deficit’s hypothesis in the existence of multiple structural breaks. Triple deficit theory is a put forward by expanding the twin deficit theory, to recognize the private deficit together with the trade deficit and budget deficit and to investigate the relationship among these under the Keynesian approach. The annual time series data has been used from 1975 to 2020. This study has applied econometric techniques that captured the impact of multiple structural breaks in the series. In this study we used the saturation approach (impulse indicator saturation and step indicator saturation) for multiple structural breaks and equilibrium correction model (EqCM) for cointegration analysis. Results concluded that in the static equilibrium correction model there has been a positive relationship between fiscal-deficit, private deficit, and trade-deficit in the existence of multiple breakpoints. In the dynamic equilibrium correction model, there exists a positive relationship both in (short-term and long-term) between budget-deficit, private deficit, and trade deficit in the presence of three-step indicators. Therefore, to control the deficits government should make such type of policies that mitigates the effects of structural breaks, and this will atomically reduce the adverse effects of shocks to the trade sector and financial sector.</p> Aqib Jawad Khan Bilal Alam Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-03 2022-12-03 3 4 425 440 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)41 State and Politics in Pakistan: An Analysis of Economic and Political Policies from 1971 To 1977 <p>Economic system and policies are the backbone for the development of a country. This paper is an effort to understand the main trends and policies of economy in Pakistan, especially during Bhutto era. The most important is the nationalization of the private property to bring equality in the society with the banner and ideology of socialism. The main cause for the failure of the Islamic socialism was that it could not get enough time. Pakistan is an agricultural country the main focus of the reforms and policies during Bhutto era were related to the land and Agri-products. Nationalization of the land make good sign because with this the people who were farmers and not having any land could get their own land which could increase the production. Another reason was to end the elite culture from Pakistan. This system was abolished with the end of Bhutto’s era. Qualitative interpretative method is applied for accomplishing this research study.</p> Qu Qiumei Li Gang Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 3 4 441 451 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-IV)42