Journal of Development and Social Sciences <h1><a href="">Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</a></h1> <p><strong>Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0.ARL/INC4757)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. is a <strong>Triple-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) en-US Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2709-6254 <p><img src="" alt="Open Access" /></p> <p><strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC) &amp; Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</strong> adheres to <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License</strong>. The authors submitting and publishing in <strong>JDSS</strong> agree to the copyright policy under <strong>creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International license)</strong>. Under this license, the authors published in <strong>JDSS</strong> retain the copyright including publishing rights of their scholarly work and agree to let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. All other authors using the content of <strong>JDSS</strong> are required to cite author(s) and publisher in their work. Therefore, <strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC) &amp; Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</strong> follow an <strong>Open Access</strong> Policy for copyright and licensing.</p> <p><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /> </p> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Signatory of DORA" /></a></p> ESL Learners Attitude towards Metacognition Approach for Learning Creative Writing at University Level <p>This research is an effort of improving the existing methods, and main focus of the research is to judge the effects of Metacognitive Approach on Creative Writing among the learners of private sector at university level. Metacognition Approach is helpful in teaching Creative Writing in ESL classrooms; moreover, it saves time and develops self-confidence, improve Critical Thinking of ESL learners. This quasi-experimental research was done to observe the effect of Metacognitive Approach on Creative Writing. The participants for this research were thirty ESL Learners of university level. The sample size was selected from two private sector universities one from Karachi and other from Lahore city. For instrumentation “Students’ Attitude Assessment Questionnaire” (SAAQ) was used for data collection and congregated data were later analyzed by the researchers by means of “Statistical Package of Social Sciences” (SPSS) latest version, and data were presented in numerical form in tables. The findings of this research show that Metacognitive Approach is much better for teaching Creative Writing and ESL learners have positive attitude towards Metacognitive Approach to learn creative writing. In the end researchers presented some recommendations.</p> Azhar Ahmad Rizvi Syed Sanober Musaddaq Ishtiaq Cheema Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 01 14 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)01 Influence of L1 on the Academic Writing Skills of Undergraduate Students of English: A Case Study of Thal University Bhakkar <p>This study aims to fill a gap in the existing literature by investigating the impact of the first language (L1) on the academic writing skills of undergraduate students majoring in English at Thal University Bhakkar (TUB). The study utilized a mixed-method research approach by employing both quantitative and qualitative methods. The sample comprised of 130 students. Quantitative data were collected from 100 students while 30 students were recruited for qualitative data. SPSS was used to analyze the questionnaire data, while the qualitative data were analyzed qualitatively following Pit Corder’s Error Analysis taxonomy. The results of the study reveal that the learners' L1 strongly interferes with their academic writing skills in English. In turn, students make multifaceted mistakes in English. The major outcome of the study is that dissimilarities between English language and students’ L1 is mainly responsible for their mistakes (e.g. in connection of pronunciation, spellings, vocabulary, and grammar) in L2.</p> Saira Hashim Abdus Samad Hassan Alamgeer Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 15 25 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)02 Development and Validation of Cognitive Errors Scale (CES) <p>This study aimed to develop the cognitive error scale and assesses the psychometric properties of the newly developed scale. Cognitive errors are disturbed thoughts that negatively affect the individual’s emotions and cause them to view reality inaccurately. The items were generated based on the interviews that were taken from the participants (N=45). The scale was administered on the sample (N=350) males and females (17-50 years) from Wah Cantt, Attock, and Rawalpindi, Pakistan using simple random sampling technique. Principle Component factor analysis was carried out for scale development. Items with factor loadings &gt;.30 on the initial factors for the cognitive error scale were selected for the final version of the scale. To make sure the data were suitable, several tests were run before the factor analysis. Five factors were extracted based on promax rotation. The scale was finalized with 15 items comprising 5 factors. The study helps in determining other cognitive errors that were also defined by Beck and it needs to be confirmed by Confirmatory Factor analysis.</p> Nazia Noureen Samina Rashid Rizwana Samreen Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 26 35 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)03 The Impact of Perceived Discrimination on Student’s Self Efficacy: Moderating Role of Religious Orientation among University Students <p>The present study explained the impact of perceived discrimination on student’s self-efficacy and the moderating role of religious orientation. The sample of 350 was taken from different universities of Wah Cantt. Participants were 18 to 30 years old to measure the variables of three scales perceived discrimination which includes sub scales of daily discrimination and life-time discrimination, religious orientation which includes extrinsic religious orientation and intrinsic religious orientation and general self-efficacy questionnaire scales were being used. Alpha reliability coefficient of daily discrimination scale was .69 and life-time discrimination was .73 the reliability of intrinsic religious orientation was .56 and extrinsic religious orientation was .45 and general self-efficacy was .71. The finding of the thesis indicated that there is a significant positive relationship between daily discrimination and life-time discrimination. As well as findings showed that there is a significant negative relationship between life-time discrimination and general self-efficacy and there is a negative relationship between daily discrimination and general self-efficacy. The current research showed that there are no significant gender differences on life-time discrimination and daily discrimination. The findings of the study showed that intrinsic religious orientation acts as a moderator in relationship with daily discrimination and general self-efficacy.</p> Bibi Hajra Bibi Maimoona Noor Narmeen Hanif Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 36 45 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)04 Reflective Learning at the University Level: A Qualitative Study from the Student's Perspective <p>Reflective learning is the act of considering one's own experiences and thoughts to gain new knowledge and enhance performance in the future. To encourage student involvement and self-directed learning, reflective learning grew in popularity in higher education. This study aimed to investigate students' perspectives on reflective learning in higher education. Nature of the study is qualitative and phenomenological approach is used to understand the lived experiences of students about reflective learning in higher education In-depth interviews were used in the study to collect information from undergraduate and graduate students. A thematic analysis of the data collected has identified the key factors that influence the effectiveness of reflective learning in higher education. This research has provided valuable insights into students' perspectives on reflective learning and has contributed to the development of strategies to enhance its effectiveness. The findings indicate that students are supportive of promoting reflective learning as they believe it improves their academic performance. The crucial elements of reflective learning include self-awareness, regular feedback, clear objectives, proper guidelines, and active engagement. Ultimately, the results of this study emphasize the importance of incorporating reflective learning into teaching practices.</p> Anisa Nur Hassan Iman Afshan Naseem Samina Safdar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 46 56 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)05 Critical Discourse Analysis of the Selected Poems of Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) <p>The purpose of this research is to explore and analyze the multifaceted discourses offered by the Victorian poet, Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) in his poetry. Thomas Hardy is not only a poet but also a novelist. Both in poetry and prose, he focuses on the sad plight of human being and his deplorable state in the universe. He also provides a panoramic point of view of common man’s issues during the industrialization, urbanization, and Darwinian expression of rapidly changing Victorian society. Hardy focuses on the constant struggle between man and the universe and according to him eventually the insensitivity and indifference of universe wins. This is a qualitive research and Critical Discourse Analysis has been applied to the selected poems of Thomas Hardy. The analysis of this research is to make the reader realize the significance of thematic structures and multidimensional discourses offered by the poet.</p> Faiza Zaheer Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 57 64 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)06 Maximizing Content-Based Knowledge of the Novice Teachers in Mathematics: An Experimental Study <p>This study used an experimental approach to find out the effect of content-based professional development training in mathematics on novice primary school teachers’ achievement in mathematics. Professional development training to in-service teachers provides need-based support to maximize their knowledge in the areas they need support. The study has its theoretical bases on Knowles (1984) theory of adult learning that assumed that adults should be involved in the planning and evaluation of their learning as this experience provides them basis to teach the subject which is relevant to their lives. 140 primary school teachers from rural areas of Sheikhupura district were clustered into 5 places for intervention. The intervention included hands on activities related to mathematics lasted 40 hours to mathematics teachers during the span of one week. The study employed one group pre-test post-test experimental design. The teachers were pretested and post-tested on a researcher-made test related to Mathematics content knowledge taken from grade 5 textbook of mathematics. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that achievement scores in posttest of the teachers were better as compared to pre-test for the mathematics subject. The researcher recommended that continuous professional development programs should be in practice to provide in-service teachers especially the novice teachers to support them.</p> Muhammad Akram Muhammad Irfan Malik Zainab Kamran Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 65 73 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)07 Public Health Expenditure, Financial Development and Health Outcomes in Pakistan: An Analysis <p>This study aims to find out the impact of public health expenditure and financial development on health outcomes in Pakistan. An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) cointegration framework has been used to analyse data of Pakistan. The results reveal that public health expenditure and financial development affect health outcomes in long and short run, the results based on the cointegration estimations show that a stable, long-run, significant relationship exists between health outcomes and its determinants. Using the error correction mechanism (ECM) for estimation of short run relationship revealed that life expectancy (LE), infant mortality (IM), under five mortality (UFM) have inverse and statically significant relationship with both public health expenditure (PHE) and domestic credit to private sector to GDP ratios (DCPS), which mean expectancy (LE), infant mortality (IM) and under five mortality (UFM) will adjust more quickly towards equilibrium in long run. On the base of our outcomes we suggest the Ministry of Health Pakistan to conduct more consultations with other ministries and other stakeholders in health services as to identify the needs and emphasize on the importance of health program to the society. At the same time, attention should be given to reduce cost of health services especially for the people who can’t afford along with increase in public health expenditure government should release more domestic credit to people so that they can afford more better life style and also focus on female literary can work more effectively as literate mother can understand things more efficiently and with more job opportunities they will become more strong financially.</p> Faiz Ur Rahim Sobia Muzaffar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 74 87 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)08 President of Pakistan: Analytical Study of the Vagueness in the Articles of the Constitution of Pakistan <p>This research study specifically covers the comparative analytical study of the articles of the Constitution of Pakistan and India which are relevant with the President with main focus on the Constitutional drawbacks, vagueness in the relevant articles which may cause Constitutional crisis at any time. In this regard comparative analysis of the articles of the Constitution of Pakistan and India has been given. To conduct this research qualitative doctrinal methodology has been applied and utilized data collection methods such as review of relevant documents constitutional provisions and case laws. Through this method this researcher reached on a conclusion and proposed solutions to address the vagueness in the provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan. From this research it appeared that on many issues Constitution of Pakistan is silent and some articles are vague in language need amendment and interpretation therefore there is need of amendment and interpretation in such articles.</p> Ali Raza Laghari Shabana Kausar Abdul Salam Soomro Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 88 104 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)09 Empowering Female University Students by improving Body Shape and Augmenting Body Image through Varsity Sports <p>The concerns of body shape and body image have appeared as largely prevalent phenomena globally. Hence, this study was aimed at exploring the intricate relationship between body shape, body image and sports participation among female university students. The study consisted of 240 female’s sample: 120 athletes and 120 non-athletes from 6 different universities of Lahore. The age range of the sample was 19 to 25 years. The data collection method was based on personal information, IPAQ and BSQ16B. The findings revealed that female athletes exhibited lower BMI values, better body shape and more favorable perceptions of their body image due to continuous engagement in sports participation as compared to their counterparts. These findings advance the proposition that sports participation may improve body shape and body image perceptions among female university students. Lastly, the policy makers in higher education settings should include sports participation as a mandatory approach for female students.</p> Ayesha Khalid Asif Ali Fariq Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-02 2024-01-02 5 1 105 114 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)10 Identifying the Teachers Professional Challenges about utilizing Technology, Conferences, Seminars and Workshops at Secondary Level <p>The research aims were to find the individual professional needs, to determine the teachers’ professional role, to identify the teachers’ professional challenges, to analyze the teachers’ involvement in job at secondary level and to design professional development framework for secondary school teachers. This study is survey and descriptive in nature, in which both the quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The explanatory sequential technique was used and the population comprised; head teachers, secondary school teachers, and students of secondary classes from Tehsil Rahim Yar Khan. The sample size comprised 48 secondary school head teachers ,144 secondary school teachers, and 426 students of secondary classes with the same ratio of gender and locality. The questionnaires were used as data collection tool. The researchers personally visited the schools and collected the data from the respondents. The study recommends that professional trainings for secondary school teachers must be organized for tackling content knowledge challenges, managerial challenges of secondary school teachers.</p> Atia Mumtaz Jam Muhammad Zafar Shazia Andleeb Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-02 2024-01-02 5 1 115 126 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)11 Investigating the Impact of WhatsApp on EFL Reading Comprehension of Intermediate Level Students in Khairpur, Sindh (Pakistan) <p>The present research is highlighting WhatsApp’s potential in promoting reading practice for EFL learners. It investigated the impact of WhatsApp on the reading comprehension of intermediate-level EFL students in Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan. The researchers employed a mixed-methods approach, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques. The study was conducted in colleges across Khairpur Sindh, with the participant pool comprising intermediate-level EFL students from various institutions within the city. Sixty participants were recruited through face-to-face interactions and completed a printed questionnaire designed to address the research questions. Data analysis involved thematic coding and subsequently presented in tables. The study's findings suggest that utilizing WhatsApp can positively impact EFL learners' reading comprehension abilities, particularly, increased exposure to diverse texts through WhatsApp reading practices was identified as a contributing factor to skill enhancement. The research findings will prove valuable for future researchers, educators, and other stakeholders engaged in EFL learning and development.</p> Abdul Rasheed Soomro Zahid Ali Jatoi Ishfaque Ali Kalhoro Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-03 2024-01-03 5 1 127 137 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)12 Relationship between Parenting Styles and Self-Efficacy of Undergraduate Students <p>The purpose of the study was to find out relationship between parenting styles and self-efficacy of undergraduate students. Correlational research was selected as research design. The population of the study was undergraduates in the education departments of the public and private universities of Lahore. The total number of students selected was 538 as sample. Parenting Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), developed by Buri (1991) was used to measure parenting styles of mothers, and the self-efficacy questionnaire developed by Jerusalem and Schwarzer, (1995). Results showed that there is a significant relationship between parenting styles and self-efficacy of undergraduate students. It is highly recommended that training programs might be created to assist mothers in implementing effective parenting practices. These measures could benefit mothers in helping them identify and acknowledge the way in which they might interact with their children effectively.</p> Mahvish Fatima Kashif Sarah Ehsan Rabia Tabassum Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-04 2024-01-04 5 1 138 148 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)13 Sports Engagement to Prevent Social Media Addiction and Augment Life Satisfaction among Early Adults Studying in the Institutions of Higher Education <p>This study explored the effect of sports participation on life satisfaction and social media addiction among university early adults. For this purpose, a cross-sectional research was conducted with 350 participants in total, of whom 175 were athletes and 175 were nonathletes from five higher education institutions. The Bergen’s social media addiction scale, the satisfaction with life scale and general info part were utilized for data collection. Independent T-test showed a clear distinction between athletes and non-athletes in terms of their degrees of social media addiction and life happiness. Particularly, compared to non-athletes, athletes reported lower rates of social media addiction which suggested that participation in sports may function as a safeguard against addiction to social media. Moreover, in terms of life satisfaction, athletes showed higher levels of life happiness in contrast to non-athletes suggesting that sports participation or physical activity can be used as a helpful measure to increase life satisfaction. With a focus on athletes and nonathletes these findings help to clarify the connection between life happiness, addiction of social media and sports participation.</p> Tanveer Amjad Asif Ali Muhammad Afaq Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-04 2024-01-04 5 1 149 158 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)14 The Protection of Human Rights of Women Migrant Workers Under the International Legal Framework <p>International labour migration brings a number of economic and development benefits to both the labour sending and receiving states. However, migrant workers who are women in particular face a multitude of challenges at different parts of the migration journey. They encounter exploitative practices during the recruitment process in the state of origin and are subjected to discriminatory treatment during their employment in the destination state. This research article explored the international legal framework, consisting of relevant human rights instruments and ILO labour standards, that effectively protect the rights of the female migrant labour force. The analysis revealed that international human rights treaties and labour standards bestowing legal, cultural, social, and economic rights are also applicable to women migrant workers and accord them protection from acts of discrimination and exploitation. Lastly, governments should formulate gender-sensitive migration procedures to ensure safe migration and legal protection for female migrant workers in overseas employment.</p> Amna Anwar Siddiqui Farkhanda Zia Mansoor Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-05 2024-01-05 5 1 159 166 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)15 Semiotic Devices Used in the Advertisements by Private Schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: A Case Study of Kohat Division <p>The study attempts to analyze the different semiotic devices used in the advertisements of private schools generally in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, particularly in Kohat division. It explores the role that different semiotic devices play in the advertisements of private schools in Kohat division and reveals the implicit, hidden, and inherent ideologies behind using these semiotic devices in private school advertisements. The present study is qualitative, and the data were collected from the latest advertisements of 2023 advertised by the private schools in KP, specifically in Kohat division. Kohat and Karak districts were selected from Kohat division. Six schools from these two districts were selected through a simple random sampling technique. After selecting private schools, the advertisements given by the selected schools were downloaded and analyzed using Fairclough's (1992) three-dimensional model. The study expects to make private school owners realize that some parents do not look at the pictures and semiotic devices in advertisements; instead, they look at the quality education provided by the school when they look for a school for their children.</p> Mudassir Inam Tariq Amin Nazakat Awan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-06 2024-01-06 5 1 167 179 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)16 An Assessment on Internal Security Threat to Pakistan and Impacts of Terrorism on Economy <p>This paper focuses on internal security threat to Pakistan and impacts of Terrorism on Economy. The multifarious threats to the security of Pakistan whether external or internal, have intensified in the 21st century. Previously, security was conceived in military terms alone. No longer true, in the matrix of national security, military threat is merely one constant. Other factors like law and order, economy, terrorism etc are all now reckonable constituents which, either alone or in combination, can trigger internal security catalysts or cause destabilization of a country. Whereas external and ideological dimensions of threat are being handled aptly by the government with appropriate responses, it is the internal dimension of national security that presents a daunting challenge to our policy makers. In this context, this paper addresses various forms of sectarianism and its impact on Pakistan’s economy in line with the US relations with Pakistan and reflections on its economy.</p> Muhammad Iqbal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-07 2024-01-07 5 1 180 190 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)17 Role of Accommodation in Tourism Development in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan <p>The importance of well-planned accommodation in tourism development is a crucial consideration for countries that attract thousands of tourists annually. Pakistan, in particular, must address this question, given the significant tourism growth, especially in its northern region of Gilgit-Baltistan. The objective of this study was to examine the role of the accommodation sector in tourism development in Gilgit-Baltistan. The study was carried out by using the mixed method by distributing a self-administered questionnaire among the tourists, accommodation facilities and suppliers. The acquired data revealed that the accommodation sector plays a vital role in tourism development and local economic development. Moreover, accommodation facilities have increased in significant numbers but many are unattractive concrete structures that threaten the region's future tourism development. These structures fail to showcase the rich and unique local cultural heritage, risking the loss of the region's essence. Future accommodation facilities must be innovative to enhance overall tourist satisfaction by building eco-friendly accommodations with adherence to building codes.</p> Rehmat Karim Attaullah Shah Ali Zeb Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-08 2024-01-08 5 1 191 198 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)18 Exploring and Overcoming Challenges Faced by Research Scholars in Faisalabad Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>This study employs a qualitative approach to get insights into the experiences of research students during the COVID-19 pandemic and their perspectives on government higher education institutions. A total of 50 students from three universities were interviewed utilising the inductive thematic method. The students engaged in a discourse regarding the dissemination of misinformation on social media, hazardous behaviour, and the need of taking preventive measures during the crisis. They were cognizant of the hazards associated with the nursing profession as well as the inconveniences of using public transport and residing in student accommodation. The students praised the assistance provided by teachers and the efforts of the institutes. However, many expressed challenges in concentrating and acquiring knowledge in virtual courses. Students commonly encounter challenges such as limited internet access, elevated stress levels, heightened anxiety, financial constraints, joblessness, and the apprehension of losing their loved ones. The implementation of lockdown restrictions had a detrimental impact on the submission of theses, hence impeding students' capacity to conduct research.</p> Shafqat Rasool Sobia Rashid Saba Latif Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 5 1 199 210 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)19 Understanding the Dynamics: The Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuations on Pakistan's Economic Landscape <p>The dynamics of exchange rates play a pivotal role in shaping the economic landscape of nations, influencing key indicators such as trade balances, foreign direct investment, and overall economic performance. This research delves into the specific case of Pakistan, aiming to comprehensively analyze the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on the country's economic framework. The objective of this study is to focus on evaluating the relationship between exchange rate fluctuations and crucial economic indicators, including GDP growth, inflation rates, FDI, CPI, and trade balances. Additionally, we examine the influence of currency volatility on export and import competitiveness, shedding light on the implications for Pakistan's trade dynamics. Methodologically, this study employs a rigorous analysis of historical exchange rate movements in Pakistan, identifying trends and pivotal events that have shaped the country's currency valuations by using correlation, regression and others. Lastly, this study provides insightful recommendations for policymakers to navigate challenges and capitalize on opportunities in shaping Pakistan's economic policies.</p> Javed Meraj Parvaiz Ahmed Muhammad Ghazanfar Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 5 1 211 223 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)20 Family Structure, Family Processes and Wellbeing of Student: A study of district Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan <p>Twentieth century has witnessed the unprecedented changes in family structures and family processes globally, which has significant impacts on family interpersonal relationships and socialization of family members especially on children. A family is a primary social institution which performs various roles and provides lifelong learning processes shortly begins after birth and a child learns to adhere to certain personal, social, and environmental values primarily through the family process. Student period of any individual is a transitional time and during this time period major biological, cognitive and social changes accrue rapidly which are strongly associated with family structure and family process. In the present study researcher trying to understand the changing patterns in family structure, family processes and its impacts on overall wellbeing of students by applying quantitative research methods &amp; technique. The data was collected from graduate level students (male &amp; female) from various colleges of Gujrat by applying stratified linear systematic quota sampling. The data was analyses through advance statistical research methods. The findings of the study indicated that different family structures such as joint family system, nuclear family system, and extended family system among others have significant relationships and have directly linked with various dimensions of wellbeing of students and the changing in single variable may change the overall effects of all remaining factors.</p> Afzaal Afzal Waqas Ahmad Sumera Tul Hasan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 5 1 224 238 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)21 A Study to Explore Perception of Elementary Schools’ Teachers Regarding Effective Teaching <p>Twentieth century has witnessed the unprecedented changes in family structures and The study aims to explore the perception of elementary schools’ teachers regarding effective teaching. A teacher is a true guide who makes every effort to help students reach their maximum learning potential. Objectives of the study were to examine the perspective of elementary school teacher on effective teaching, analyse their teaching methodologies and identify the barriers to effective teaching. The study was descriptive in nature. Researchers have conducted a survey from teachers of Rural and Urban areas of Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan at both Government and Private sector for elementary level. The population of the study comprised of 200 working male and female teachers from rural and urban areas of both Government and Private sectors. The random sampling method was used and 40 teachers were selected. The tool of the study includes a questionnaire which was based on 5-point Likert scale. Researcher personally visited all the schools and got permission from the authorities to collect the data from the teachers of elementary level. Data analysis was done by using frequency and percentages. Findings of the study showed that most of the teachers were well aware of the term effective teaching. However; this study illustrated some issues while analyzing the other characteristics like punctuality and behavior of teachers in some aspects. It is recommended that all teachers should be trained on set standards to avoid cognitive dissonance of teachers.</p> Muhammad Waseem Rahmat Ullah Bhatti Muhammad Ramzan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-10 2024-01-10 5 1 239 249 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)22 Contours of Identity: A Comprehensive Exploration of Ideological Narratives in Pakistan's Formation <p>The genesis of Pakistan represents a multifaceted historical occurrence, shaped by intricate interplays of ideas, politics, interpersonal dynamics and religion. The primary objective of this research delves into diverse perspectives on the rationale behind Pakistan's formation, with a main emphasis on pivotal ideological constructs. The conceptual foundation of Pakistan, encapsulated in the Two-Nation Theory, is examined through the lenses of Muslim nationalism and the aspiration for an Islamic state. Paramount motivations include safeguarding Muslim rights, exerting political influence, addressing fiscal concerns and preserving cultural identity. The background of the study is linked with the notion of partition and explores it as a means to foster amicable relations among diverse religious communities, addressing conflicts within British India. The methodology of this research work is primarily based on historical and descriptive methods. Moreover, this paper is an addition to the historiography of Freedom Movement of Pakistan and a new perspective for the reader of South Asian Studies.</p> Ghulam Shabbir Sharaf Ali Syeda Sajida Batool Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-12 2024-01-12 5 1 250 260 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)23 Analysis of the Challenges faced by Secondary School Teachers during the Conduction of Online Classes <p>This study aimed to explore the online teaching experiences and challenges faced by secondary school teachers in Chakwal district. From 154 selected secondary and higher secondary schools, a sample of 321 male teachers participated. Using a validated questionnaire with 17 closed-ended items, the research analyzed teachers' experiences, primarily focusing on IT skills and online teaching. Responses were gathered through zone meetings and personal school visits, later analyzed using SPSS and various statistical methods. The findings emphasized that IT-skilled teachers, whether through diplomas or training, effectively conducted online classes. Conversely, teachers lacking IT skills encountered difficulties transitioning to online teaching. A majority of these non-IT-skilled teachers advocated for frequent refresher courses and in-service training in new educational technologies to address these challenges.</p> Muhammad Haris Baidar Raja Waqas Ahmed Ziarab Mehmood Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-12 2024-01-12 5 1 261 277 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)24 Awareness and Practices of Foot Care among Diabetic Patients: A Study at Lahore General Hospital, Lahore <p>Diabetes mellitus, a persistent metabolic condition commonly known as diabetes, comprises a cluster of metabolic disorders arising from the body's incapacity to generate an adequate amount of insulin or efficiently utilize the insulin it produces. Among the various complications associated with diabetes, diabetic foot complications constitute a serious threat to the well-being of affected individuals. Aim of study is to assess the awareness and practices of foot care among diabetic patients: a study at Lahore General Hospital, Lahore. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed for this research, conducted at the diabetic clinic of Lahore General Hospital. A sample size of 104 was determined with a 95% confidence interval and a 5% margin of error. Convenient sampling technique was utilized for participant selection. . A structured knowledge assessment tool and practice checklist was used to collect data from participants. Following data collection, the analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 24. Among the 104 participants, 32.7% were male, and 67.3% were female, and majority of participants, constituting 59.6%, fell within the age range of 40-60 years. About 90(86.5%) participants had poor knowledge and awareness regarding foot care and 14(13.5%) had good knowledge regarding foot care. Majority of participants 57.6% had incompetent practices. It is concluded that majority of diabetic patients who participated in research had poor knowledge and incompetent practices regarding foot care.</p> Smaira Nawaz Riffat Mushtaq Amna Akhtar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-13 2024-01-13 5 1 278 284 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)25 Trucking Industry in Pakistan and Contemporary Challenges: An Overview <p>This work focuses on analysis of legal framework of trucking Industry and contemporary challenges in Pakistan. It discusses the road safety laws and relevant legal framework in Pakistan along with truck companies and their liability. As Trucking industry is central to country’s development, the objective is to analyze it from legal perspective. Contemporary Challenges for Trucking Industry in Pakistan includes: Improper Maintenance and Fitness Certification of Trucks, externalities, long working hours of drivers, overloading, and implementation of laws. It concludes and recommends that Pakistan should further improve trucking industry. The methodology for this paper is qualitative and an analytical method is followed.</p> Iqra Tariq Sardar M.A. Waqar Khan Arif Sardar Yasir Baig Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 5 1 285 292 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)26 Varsity Sports to Combat Smartphone Addiction among University Students <p>This study compared high exercise group with low exercise group to assess the influence of physical activity on smartphone addiction in early adult university students as it was the primary aim of the study. The final sample size comprised of 330 participants from five universities, out of which 165 were university level student-athletes and 165 were university level non-athlete students. To analyze and investigate the relationships between relevant variables, this study employed cross-sectional design of study. The short version IPAQ, SAS, and demographic information were utilized to collect data. It was revealed by t-test analysis that the mean score of smartphone addiction for low exercising group was considerably greater than high exercising group. These findings indicated that exercise can lessen smartphone addiction as athletes demonstrated minor smartphone addiction tendencies compared to non-athletes. These findings also suggested a potential protective role of physical activity against smartphone addiction.</p> Rahat Anwar Asif Ali Fariq Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-17 2024-01-17 5 1 293 301 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)27 Religion and Gender Studies: Examining the Intersection <p>The intersection of religion and gender constitutes a captivating and intricate field of study that has increasingly garnered scholarly attention in recent years. In order to understand the complex interactions between gender dynamics and multifaceted intersection of religious ideas, this research paper takes a close look at the junction of gender studies and religion. The aim is to promote a deeper knowledge of how religious beliefs influence and are influenced by society conceptions of gender roles and expectations as scholars delve into sacred texts, theological interpretations, and lived experiences. Based on the understanding that cultural, historical, and social elements play a role in this intersection, the research takes a multifaceted approach to revealing the complex ways that religious beliefs affect, contest, and navigate societal constructs of gender roles and expectations. In order to obtain comprehensive insights and nuanced understandings, this study used mixed approach; qualitative as well as quantitative research methodology by analyzing sacred texts, survey, interviews, theological interpretations, and lived experiences. Recognizing the intricacies of identity and the ways in which many characteristics cross in religious contexts is made easier with the help of Kimberlé Crenshaw's intersectionality theory. Likewise, the study examines how women function in religious organizations, looking at differences in leadership roles, how religious teachings affect women's autonomy, and how women interact with patriarchal systems. The study also explores how religion affects LGBTQ+ people, looking at how different religious traditions react to non-normative sexual orientations and gender identities. The present study offers significant contributions to the current discourse on inclusion, tolerance, and acceptance in religious organizations. It also sheds light on the varied obstacles and prospects faced by persons navigating the confluence of gender and religion.</p> Abdul Qayyum Gondal Zulkarnain Hatta Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-17 2024-01-17 5 1 302 310 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)28 Impact of Gender Specific Human Capital on Economic Growth: The Role of Financial Development <p>This study examines the impact of gender-specific human capital on economic growth and explores how this impact depends on the level of financial development. There is considerable debate about the contribution of gender-specific human capital to substantial economic growth. This study utilized panel data from 57 countries spanning the period of 1980 to 2020 and employed pooled OLS and fixed effect techniques for empirical analysis. The results indicate that both male and female human capital exert a significant and positive impact on economic growth. Furthermore, the findings reveal that financial development undermines the positive impact of male and female human capital on economic growth, suggesting substitutability between human capital and financial development. Based on these findings, this study proposes that policymakers focus on controlling excess money supply to enhance the effectiveness of financial development.</p> Iqra Abdul Khaliq Babar Hussain Muhammad Tanveer Ahmed Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-18 2024-01-18 5 1 311 327 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)29 Dynamic Nexus between Ownership Structures and Commercial Bank Performance: A Study of Commercial Banks of Pakistan <p>The study's objective is to explore the impact of ownership structures (OS) on firm performance and, consequently, the country's overall economic prosperity. The role of well-performing commercial banking in fostering economic growth is undeniable. A firm's ownership Structure (OS) is responsible for designing and allocating power to management. The relationship between OS and commercial bank performance has not yet been explored in Pakistan. This study addresses this gap by examining 20 banks listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange from 2010 to 2021. Fixed effect panel regression is performed. Results confirmed that OS has a significant positive impact on performance. This study emphasizes prioritizing and achieving the desirable OS to achieve banks' strategic objectives and develop their flexibility for sustainability by improving governance practices.</p> Muhammad Ehsan Javaid Moazzam Ali Ahmad Hasan Jamal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-18 2024-01-18 5 1 328 339 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)30 Enhancing Emotional Literacy: Investigating the Correlation between Soft Skills Proficiency and Emotional Intelligence <p>The current study is an endeavor to “investigate the correlation between soft skills proficiency and emotional intelligence of primary school teachers”. Soft skills embrace a wide continuum of interpersonal traits these skills oblige as a basic component for the development of emotional intelligence, a critical facet for individuals across numerous sectors, including education. Emotionally intelligent teachers tend to be more vibrant and productive in accomplishing their roles. This study was quantitative and descriptive in nature; study population was all the primary school teachers (PSTs) of the elementary wing of district Rahim Yar Khan. Cluster random sampling was employed and 245 schools were selected as sample. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The results of the study showed a significant effect and positive correlation between the soft skills and emotional intelligence of teachers. It is recommended that soft skills must be developed in teachers to boost and nurture their emotional intelligence.</p> Shaista Sahar Naeem Ullah Mazhar Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-18 2024-01-18 5 1 340 348 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)31 Reviewing CBT Intervention for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Systematic Literature <p>Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) targets distorted beliefs and behaviors associated with BDD and shows promise in its treatment. To explore the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy as an evidence-based intervention for patients with Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), characterized by distressing preoccupation with perceived physical flaws.The systematic review was comprised search on Web of Science, PsycINFO, Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, ClinicalTrials and OvidSP databases for experimental studies and randomised controlled trials, surveys related to CBT, BDD, and published in peer-reviewed English-language journals. The studies' quality was assessed using the Modified Cochrane Collaboration risk of the bias assessment criteria. All 09 studies reported significant results in patients diagnosed patients with BDD and underscores the potential of CBT to alleviate distress and enhance the quality of life for those affected by BDD. This review is recommended to promote cognitive restructuring, gradual exposure, and improved overall mental well-being</p> Aqila Unbrin Mafia Shazhadi Mehwish Jabeen Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-19 2024-01-19 5 1 349 358 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)32 Exploring the Pakistan-India Water Dispute in the Context of Climate Change: An Environmental Security Perspective <p>This study delves into the intricate history and pivotal junctures of the Pakistan-India water dispute, examining its environmental dimensions through the lenses of environmental security and the Theory of Environmentalism in International Relations (TEIR). Amid the shared vulnerability of Pakistan and India to climate change threats impacting their shared river waters, collaborative efforts become imperative. Projections indicate climate-related losses could cost South Asia $518 billion by 2050, a substantial portion of the region's GDP. This underscores the urgency for swift cooperation to foster sustainable water management in response to climate change. A descriptive and analytical research methodology has been used in which diplomatic discussions evaluates successes, failures, and ongoing peace-building efforts. The interplay of environmental security is emphasized in fostering sustainable transboundary water management for a resilient South Asia. Conclusively, proactive measures, innovative diplomacy, and sustainable water management are advocated for building a more resilient and interconnected South Asia.</p> Imran Zahoor Zille Huma Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 5 1 359 368 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)33 Effect of Prospective Teachers' Growth Mindset on their Self-Efficacy, Psychological Well-Being and Academic Achievement <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the Growth Mindset on the prospective teachers’ Self-Efficacy, Psychological Well-being and Academic Achievement. There were 400 Prospective teachers selected with Cluster sampling from four universities based in Lahore. Their Growth Mindset has been measured with Growth Mindset Scale developed by Chen et al. (2023) and their Self-Efficacy has been measured with the Academic Self-Efficacy developed by Kunnathodi (2016). Similarly, their Psychological Wellbeing has been measured with the Psychological Wellbeing Scale by (Ryff et al., 2018) whereas their academic achievement has been measured while taking scores of their semester. Pearson’s r and Regression Analysis indicated a positive and moderate effect of Growth Mindset on prospective teachers’ Self-Efficacy, Psychological Wellbeing and Academic Achievement. Therefore, it is recommended that the Growth Mindset should be developed in the Prospective Teachers so that their Psychological Wellbeing, Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement could be effected positively.</p> Iqra Tabassum Muhammad Riaz Rana Farheen Gull Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-23 2024-01-23 5 1 369 378 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)34 US-China Power Contestation: Pakistan’s Balancing Paradox <p>The research aims to analyze and address the repercussions of past missteps and forthcoming challenges in Pakistan's foreign policy in the wake of the US-China power contest and emerging realities. To understand the complex incidents that create stress for Pakistan in meeting foreign policy challenges, multiple secondary sources, including books and journal articles, were analyzed. The world is battling ongoing and complex global issues. The ongoing technological competition between China and the United States has created challenging times for regional stability in South Asia, particularly for Pakistan. Pakistan is struggling to balance its relationships with these superpowers, and this has resulted in a downward spiral for the country. Domestic issues and external pressures are contributing to this crisis, and the increasing polarization in society alters the country's security apparatus. The US and China are vying to control the world through an offense-defense balance. Pakistan is caught in a security dilemma. It is recommended to address and prioritize domestic issues. Either to prepare the nation to bear the challenges of opting for a clear policy or going with the flow rather than trying to control the controversial environment</p> Maryum Maqsood Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-23 2024-01-23 5 1 379 388 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)35 Moderating Effect of Demographics on the Relationship between Religiosity of Owner/ Manager of SME on Growth of SMEs <p>The objective of the study is to pinpoint the moderating role of demographic variables of owner/ manager in relationship between religiosity and growth of SMEs. The hypotheses have been established on the basis of previous theories and review of related literature. The data has been collected from 456 owners/ managers of SMEs by using the adopted questionnaires with 5-point likert scale. In analysis, the descriptive statistics and regression analysis has been carried out. The results of the study are indicating that demographic variables enhance the relationship between religiosity and growth of SMEs. The results of the study are helpful to understand that how religiosity and age of managers and owners of SMEs are essential to business growth. The results recommends to implement the religious teachings at school and college level.</p> Zillay Hussain Dar Faheem Qaisar Jamal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-24 2024-01-24 5 1 389 397 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)36 Learning Perspective in Social Studies and Pakistan Studies Subjective Contents to Strengthen Democracy, Citizenship, Peace and Tolerance in Students <p>Study aims to explore the learning perspectives in social studies and Pakistan studies subjects’ which strengthen the democracy, citizenship and Peace and tolerance among students, it also analyzes the contents of social studies and Pakistan studies subjects which strengthen the democratic, citizenship, Peace and tolerance skills among students. Curriculum contents construct learning perspective which synthesize the mindset and motivate the reasoning abilities and critical thinking. Contents of SS and PS subjects reflect the ideological, social and cultural, political, religious, constitution and law perspectives. Study is qualitative in nature, narrative design and case studies designs are used, data is collected through convenient sampling with semi structured tool from 20 participants and data is also collected through the contents of democracy, citizenship, peace and tolerance from 10 social studies and Pakistan studies 1 class 12 class text books. Study explores that there is diverse learning perspective in SS and PS subjects contents such as ideological, social and cultural, political and constitutional, national and international, contents of subjects are related to scope of democracy, good governance, peace, harmony, equality, social justice, norms, value and citizenship. Content oriented information builds the national hood, equality, social justice, cooperation, and brotherhood, ethical and moral values which strengthen democracy and peace and tolerance among individuals.</p> Irfan Ali Mallah Ejaz Shaheen Imran Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-24 2024-01-24 5 1 398 406 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)37 Comparison of Readability of English Text between the Students of Grade 11 of a Private and Public Sector Educational Institution of Rawalpindi <p>The current study is conducted to investigate the reading skills of the students of grade 11 in private and public sector educational institutions in Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan. The participants of the study are judged for their ability of sub skills of reading such as speed or fluency, accuracy in pronunciation, phonetics, and marks of punctuation in the light of standards of reading set internationally. This study helps both the teachers and the students to evaluate their skill of reading a text from a textbook in the actual classroom in particular and in real-life contexts in general. The data for this research is collected through visits to the classrooms of the mentioned institutions. The students are made to read the texts aloud while their responses are recorded in real time. A total of 20 participants aged between 14-18 years have been selected 10 from each institution. The research is both qualitative and quantitative. The results of the study have revealed that the students of both institutions particularly the public sector institution lag far behind the standards of reading skills. This research can pave the way in the future to investigate the reasons why the students at these institutions and others fail to achieve the reading standards.</p> Jamshaid Anjum Saqlain Hassan Faiza Ghayour Bhatti Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-25 2024-01-25 5 1 407 418 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)38 Capital Structure, Firm Size, Profitability, and Tax Avoidance: Investigating the Oil and Gas Industry of Pakistan <p>The purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of capital structure, firm size, and profitability on tax avoidance and to examine the tax planning strategies implied in the oil and gas industry of Pakistan. Owing to its rapid expansion and enormous profits, the oil industry is a symbol of blue-chip businesses. One way it supports the economy is by increasing the nation's tax income. An analysis of the tax planning techniques suggested in this industry is essential for efficient legislation and departmental evaluation. In this research, the explanatory research method is implied, and only firm-specific factors are considered for analysis. The effect of capital structure, firm size, and profitability on corporate tax avoidance is examined by the Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model. As per the results, capital structure has a negative association whereas firm size and profitability have a positive association with tax avoidance.</p> Ahtesham ul Haq Dhariwal Naveed Mushtaq Gondal Attiya Anees Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-25 2024-01-25 5 1 419 428 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)39 Navigating Disputes: An In-Depth Analysis of Alternative Dispute Resolution within the Framework of Arbitration Law <p>The abstract aims to deal with valuable insights into the developing landscape of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in Pakistan and subsidize to the global discourse on actual dispute resolution process, from broad review of case studies and statutory provisions. Arbitration is an eminent, cost effective and expedite way of ADR. The significance of ADR are changing globally. So far as Pakistan is concerned, it is currently under the process of formulating legislation and regulations that would meritoriously backing the arbitration process. This study explores the ADR role with context of Pakistan’s Arbitration law and an insight over its application and difficulties thereof. This study further delves into the nuance of the role of Arbitrator and its powers. Furthermore, the research demeanors a comparative analysis, juxtaposing the arbitration laws of Pakistan with foreign laws having similar jurisdictions. It is concluded that Pakistan has to revamp its ADR laws and bring uniformity in all provincial arbitration laws as it directly effects the country’s socio-economic policy and access to justice. It is recommended that the arbitration laws be amended and latest technologies be introduced in its proceedings which will enable the inexpensive justice to the people. It is further recommended that empirical research be conducted and revisit the method of arbitral award.</p> Khurram Faizan Muhammad Tahir Abdullah Jummani Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-25 2024-01-25 5 1 429 436 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)40 A GIS Modeling for the Spatial Planning and Developmental Attraction of Land Use Land Cover Pattern in Cooperative Sukkur Society District Sukkur, Sindh <p>A crucial requirement for making decisions about land management, development, and investment is mandatory to access the land information. For the purposes of land management, usage, and spatial planning, the distribution of land cover as represented by mapping data is essential. Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing were utilized for this revision to examine the distribution of land cover pattern and the advantages of the society, in connection among anthropological burden on the terrestrial ground shown in Sukkur Cooperative Society which is located in the northern Sindh district of Sukkur, this project uses satellite imagery of 2023 specifically, quick bird imagery to illustrate the land cover pattern of the society. This community is a densely populated location with open areas, trees, reservoirs, railroad tracks, and some significant roadways. At the findings of the exploration the area is high built up in this association the GIS modules can be helpful in planning forward thinking initiatives like large-scale plans for the future development of Sukkur's society.</p> Naila Parveen Abbasi Ghazala Parveen Abbasi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 5 1 437 448 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)41 Establishing Significance of Old Central Hub-Faisalabad Built Heritage through Documentation for Regeneration Strategy <p>The goal of the study is to document the declared built heritage of Old Central Hub of Faisalabad being an industrial city of Pakistan, with a unique history and significant heritage structures.These structures and buildings are still standing in their grandeur while lacking the essence of aesthetically beautiful architecture appreciation due to neglect and ownership. The archival data was collected and further strengthened with the textural data to formulate the inventory while using architecture documentation as a main instrument for recording information. The establishment of statement of significance would emphasize the future restoration methodologies. This first step would lead to the formulation of the regeneration strategy with the series of prioritization of restoration actions. The present era of climate change and DE carbonization demands the conservation of resources which can be best achieved through regeneration strategy for the built structures like in old central hub of Faisalabad.</p> Bazla Manzoor Saima Gulzar Fatima Tuz Zahra Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-28 2024-01-28 5 1 449 471 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)42 Morning Shows and Ethical Considerations: A Comparative Analysis of “Good Morning Pakistan” and “Dhanak” <p>This study looks into how morning shows, especially "Good Morning Pakistan" and "Dhanak," affect society, with an emphasis on social issues, ethical issues, and cultural standards. The research uses quantitative content analysis, which is based on agenda setting and framing theories, to evaluate the content frames of these shows. Despite being essential news and entertainment outlets, morning shows mostly draw female viewers. To assess their societal role, one must comprehend their impact on social discourse, ethical norms, and cultural representation. The study chooses the sample size and takes into account three units of analysis: social issues, ethics, and culture by simple random sampling. The results show that "Good Morning Pakistan" is better in line with Pakistani culture, gives greater weight to ethical issues, and addresses social issues in greater detail than "Dhanak." Enhancing cultural representation, strengthening ethical frameworks, and promoting in-depth conversations on hot-button social problems are among the suggestions for improving morning show programming.</p> Haseeb Sarwar Afifa Tanveer Malhi Ayesha Sania Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-28 2024-01-28 5 1 472 480 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)43 Effects of Monetary Policy on Emerging Market Economies: Study Perspective from Bank Lending Channel <p>This study aims to examine the effects of bank lending channel of monetary policy on capital markets in seventeen emerging countries comprising of 5,574 banks over the sampled years from 2006-2021. Due to the importance of monetary policy and its transmission effect into the real economy via multiple channels, this research will focus on the bank lending channel because of the significant effects which banks have on the economy and financial markets. The study utilizes dynamic panel model with sys-GMM and fixed effect regressions along with performing robustness check, firstly by performing instrumental variable regressions and secondly by taking higher lags from the data sample. Results of the study indicate that bank lending channel operates in the capital markets. The financial development indicators exhibit a strong and significant effect on bank lending channel where monetary policy negatively affects and economic growth positively influences bank lending in the sampled countries.</p> Syed Muhammad Shuja Fayaz Hussain Tunio Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-28 2024-01-28 5 1 481 493 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)44 Navigating External Debt Dynamics for Sustainable Growth: Multinational Analysis <p>This research endeavors to unravel the complex interplay between external debt dynamics and economic growth. External debt is necessary for countries to finance investments in infrastructure, human capital, technology, economic growth, and address balance of payments. It plays a pivotal role in supporting development initiatives and crisis management. The study took 41 diverse countries within the International Monetary Fund (IMF) framework from 2005 to 2021. Employing a meticulously curated dataset encompassing various economic indicators GDP growth, external debt, government consumption, inflation, and imports this study applies System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and Difference GMM approach. High external debt is linked to lower GDP growth, indicating negative correlation. The study highlights the impact of government consumption, inflation, and imports on GDP growth, with varying effects based on analytical methods. Evidence-based recommendations include prudent debt management, efficient government spending, and trade-friendly policies for sustainable economic expansion.</p> Azra Sadia Mustafa Junaid Ali Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-28 2024-01-28 5 1 494 507 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)45 Exploring the Patterns and Factors influencing Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan <p>Suicide is considered one of the leading causes of premature death worldwide, and it is still an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are no national statistics on suicide; however, local and regional studies showed a higher inclination in some areas of Sindh, KP, and Gilgit-Baltistan. The data was extracted from my PhD research work which aimed to cross-investigate the suicide statistics, and document the trends of suicide and its linkages with socio-demographic information of suicide victims to explore the influence of later on. Qualitative data were analyzed using SPSS; case studies were included to support the description. The result showed that the female suicide rate is higher than male; students and housewives categorically on the top. Gunshots, hanging, and jumping into rivers were the mostly used tools to commit suicide. A comprehensive, policy-based study is necessary to curb the issue.</p> Zubair Ahmed Muhammad Ilyas Bhatti Ehsan Ullah Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-28 2024-01-28 5 1 508 519 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)46 Impact of Online Advertisements on Online Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Daraz <p>Objective of present study was to investigate the impact of online advertisements on online buying behavior through popular ecommerce platform Daraz. It is evident that advertisements can influence consumer buying behavior but there is lack of studies which focus on influence of online advertisements on bung behavior. The population of the present study consists of the internet users. The research method was applied, basic and developmental in terms of objective and descriptive- survey in terms of method. The results of the analysis showed that usage of online advertisement, attitude towards online advertisement and gratification has significant positive relationship with Daraz online shopping. Findings also indicated that the influence of advertising on customers has cause them to slowly change their buying behaviors and rethink of the Daraz products they buy. Further studies can also be conducted to understand demographics and psychographics of online buyers which can improve online marketing techniques.</p> Abdul Rehman Madni Ali Hassan Malik Adnan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-28 2024-01-28 5 1 520 528 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)47 Islamophobia in Hollywood Movies: Comparative Analysis of Pre and Post-9/11 Movies <p>The objective of this study is to find out whether and to what extent Hollywood movies propagate Islamophobia through bigger screens. Movies greatly influence the way people feel and think about many different things. It has long been vital to examine film depictions of various religions. The portrayal of Islam in media before and following the events of September 11, 2001, is analyzed in this qualitative study. Using purposive sampling, each film is selected both before and after 9/11. The Mighty Heart (2007) and True Lies (1994) both set before 9/11. According to the results, Hollywood movies frequently depict Muslims in a stereotypical light and use Orientalist stereotypes about Islam. To examine the content and show instances of terrorism, extremism, espionage, intrigue, and gender oppression, researchers created three scenarios. It turns out that Muslim women had lower status than men and could not get their hands on necessities. Terrorism, extremism, espionage, and intrigue are also major plot points in these movies. future studies can examine the steps implemented by the Hollywood business in response to Islamophobia in its films.</p> Ayesha Qamar Sadaf Irtaza Syed Yousaf Raza Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-29 2024-01-29 5 1 529 537 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)48 Investigating the Impact of Teaching-Learning Materials on Students’ Academic Performance in Government Primary Schools in the Naseerabad Division, Balochistan, Pakistan <p>The main objective of this study was to examine the impact of Teaching-Learning Materials on students' academic performance in Government Primary Schools in the Naseerabad Division of Baluchistan, Pakistan. For this purpose, the data was collected from 200 head teachers, 8 educational administrators, 32 parents and 32 community members. The data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed using frequency distribution, percentage, Pearson correlation, and logistic regression. On the other hand, thematic analysis was used to analyze data collected through interview schedules and focus group discussions. The study found that teaching-learning materials significantly influence students' academic performance, and they play a crucial role in increasing students' engagement and understanding of complex concepts, improving retention, and boosting motivation and examination performance. Therefore, the study recommended, among others, that governments need to allocate more funds to provide teaching-learning materials to schools to enhance students' academic performance.</p> Shakeel Ahmed Mumtaz Ali Baloch Hafsa Karim Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-29 2024-01-29 5 1 538 545 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)49 Warning and Safety Labels: A Sociological Perspective <p>This study was conducted to examine the effects of self-motivation. This research presents the theoretical paradigm that underpins the cognitive method and examines warning labels and safety communication. Warning labels and safety communication depends on different levels of perceived "danger" or "hazard." It investigates the effects of these labels on people's comprehension and decision-making. The research concluded with a comparison of the approaches employed in focus groups and cognitive interviews to evaluate warning labels. The study of 10 participant responses from each of the two groups indicated which technique produced more useful information for safety label review and revision. In general, individuals were more likely to observe, read, and follow instructions that they believed to be more dangerous than those that they believed to be less dangerous and people who are more familiar with the warning are less likely to read, and recall it than those who are not.</p> Zuhaib Ali Danial Ahmed Zaheer Abbas Mangi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 5 1 546 551 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)50 Urban Morphology: A thorough Comparison of Modernist and Postmodernist Town Planning, Unveiling Systematic Neglect of Social and Human Factors <p>This research paper undertakes a meticulous critique exposing the insipid simplification and impracticality inherent in modernist and postmodernist town planning. The pivotal role played by Jane Jacobs, whose theoretical contributions have significantly influenced the criticism of these approaches, is a focal point of this analysis. Jacobs&amp;#39; keen insights into what a city stands for, emphasizing the vitality of local communities and human-scale urbanism, serve as a cornerstone for reevaluating contemporary town planning principles. This oversight is distinctly noticeable in the paradigms of modernist and postmodernist town planning. In the aftermath of war, a fervent push to transform town planning into an applied science inadvertently resulted in the loss of integral elements, such as the city&amp;#39; s collective memory, desires, and spirit, alongside the importance of place and art of place-making. The paper contributed to a broader understanding of urban morphology and advocates for a more inclusive and sustainable vision for the future development of cities.</p> Muhammad Taimur Sarwar Faiqa Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 5 1 552 561 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)51 Spatio-Temporal Variation in Land Use and Land Cover from 1988 to 2018: A Study of District Khairpur Mir’s, Pakistan <p>One of the major drivers of environmental change at the global and regional levels is defined as land use and land cover (LULC). The process of LULC modification is a result of the complex interactions between people and their surroundings In order to effectively use and manage natural resources, Detecting the changes of land use and land cover of the earth’s surface is extremely important to achieve continual and precise information about study area for planning and development. The aim of this study is to map the land use and land cover of District Khairpur on year 1988, 1998, 2008 and 2018 respectively to monitor the possible changes that may occur particularly in agricultural land and urban or built-up land, and detect the process of urbanization in this city. Maximum likelihood supervised classification were used in all four imageries and five classes were made namely Vegetation, Water Body, Sand, Barren land, and Built-up Area.</p> Mairaj Ali Panhwar MM Anwar Amjad Ali Maitlo Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-02-01 2024-02-01 5 1 562 571 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)52 Review of Linked Data and Open Educational Resources in Academia: Potential Benefits and Challenges <p>This study aims to establish the importance of open educational resources through linked data among academics in higher educational institutes. This paper examines the potential benefits and challenges of using linked data technologies for open educational resources (OERs) in university academics. This study is based on a descriptive literature review published in national and international literature. This study demonstrated that the use of linked data to integrate open educational resources supported university academia in improving learning, teaching, and research activities. The relevant literature established the dynamic role of linked data for the enhancement of open educational resources and associated potential benefits and multiple challenges by the academia. The study sensitizes the educational institute’s administration to take initiatives for the open educational resources in terms of open education, open repository and open courseware. The results of the study develop the understanding of students, teachers and information professional in higher education institutes locally and internationally. Moreover, this study provides the recommendations to investigate this phenomenon in depth in order to apply linked data in the academic setting. In this era of information and communication technology where the web has become increasingly important. These phases include open research, open sciences, and open educational resources that incorporate linked data require in-depth examination in in local perspective to become more visible in academia</p> Shahbaz Ali Anjum Muhammad Nadeem Akhtar Muhammad Zahid Raza Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-02-01 2024-02-01 5 1 572 584 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)53 Comparative Study of Forensic Face Recognition and Fingerprint during Crime Scene investigation and the role of Artificial Intelligence tools in Forensics <p>Surprisingly, the high accuracies previously reported, exceeding 95%, dropped significantly when faced with the more demanding conditions of the forensic scenario, plummeting to as low as 65%. In essence, while facial recognition systems have shown impressive performance in ideal conditions, our study indicates a substantial decrease in accuracy when faced with the complexities and challenges typical of real-world forensic scenarios, highlighting the need for further advancements to bridge this gap. Recent advancements in machine learning and computer vision have shown facial recognition systems achieving accuracies that surpass human performance in controlled settings but fingerprint analysis is proved more accurate in all aspects. To investigate this, we created a large-scale synthetic facial dataset and designed a controlled facial lineup that mimics conditions encountered in real forensic situations. This approach allowed us to systematically assess facial recognition under various challenging real-world conditions. Using both our synthetic dataset and a well-known dataset of actual faces, we tested the accuracy of two widely used neural-based facial recognition systems. Comparative and Analytical method is applied for present Research. Artificial intelligence could help humans in accuracy and speeding up the process of investigation.</p> Shabana Kausar Rizwana Khanzada Mohammad Abbas Sherazi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-02-01 2024-02-01 5 1 585 597 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)54 Crafting Environmental Prioritization for End Users: Revamping the Thermal Comfort at Shifa Gyne Hospital, Rawalpindi <p>COVID-19 pandemic raised concerns of thermal comfort in hospitals by end users. Gynecology &amp; Obstetrics is a major health specialty which prioritizes on thermal comfort of the patients. Lacking of such standardization was observed in Shifa Gyne Hospital, Rawalpindi and it was explored through current research. Objective was to explore, identify issues and propose interventions to address these gaps. Research exploration used two way approaches using observational study with a checklist and questionnaire to collect data from 150 respondents in winter and summer seasons. Data in summer highlighted aspects of poor cross ventilation, lack of openings, higher humidity and lack of fresh air intake into indoor spaces. Winter season with higher humidity value was a major issue along with allied stated issues. Analysis showed only indoor temperature in winter was reported to be in satisfaction while remaining aspects failed to satisfy end users. Hence environmental design interventions were proposed.</p> Architect Omer Shujat Bhatti Architect Wahida Akhtar Bhatti Architect Rifza Zahid Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-02-01 2024-02-01 5 1 598 616 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-I)55