Journal of Development and Social Sciences <h1><a href="">Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</a></h1> <p><strong>Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0.ARL/INC4757)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. is a <strong>Triple-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) en-US Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2709-6254 <p><img src="" alt="Open Access" /></p> <p><strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC) &amp; Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</strong> adheres to <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License</strong>. The authors submitting and publishing in <strong>JDSS</strong> agree to the copyright policy under <strong>creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International license)</strong>. Under this license, the authors published in <strong>JDSS</strong> retain the copyright including publishing rights of their scholarly work and agree to let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. All other authors using the content of <strong>JDSS</strong> are required to cite author(s) and publisher in their work. Therefore, <strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC) &amp; Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</strong> follow an <strong>Open Access</strong> Policy for copyright and licensing.</p> Social Work Field Practicum: From Signature Pedagogy to the Field Workers Challenges <p>Social Work Field Practicum is an essential to Social Work education. Literature shows that there are certain challenges and problems in Social Work Field Practicum. The intention of this study was to investigate experiences and challenges faced by graduate students during training of Field Work. To explain the issue, the following study used phenomenological research approach. In the present research, multi-stage sampling was used and firstly two universities of Punjab namely, University of the Punjab Lahore and University of Sargodha, Sargodha were selected; secondly department of Social Work of the above said universities were selected by following purposive sampling and thirdly the participants of the study were contacted through the department. Criteria for the selection of participants were the students who have completed field work during graduate program. The data was analyzed by following the overall process guided by Creswell (2013) and later analysis was presented through the major themes.</p> Amna Tariq Beenish Ijaz Butt Yasir Javed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 4 4 01 11 10.47205/jdss.2023(4-IV)01 Development Path of Bilateral Economic Relations between Pakistan and China: Current International Situation <p>China and Pakistan are strategic partners, and the two people share a deep historical sentiment. Currently, changes in the world, times, and history are unfolding in an unprecedented manner. Faced with a highly uncertain world situation, Pakistan and China maintain high-level cooperation in multilateral mechanisms, closely cooperate on major international and regional issues, and achieve mutual benefit and win-win results. It analyzes the prospects for deepening cooperation in bilateral trade between Pakistan and China, as well as the risk factors that are likely to occur in bilateral trade between Pakistan and China. For this research study both the primary and secondary sources are utilized and qualitative research techniques are applied to trace out the results. It is necessary for both the partner to never undermine the threats of the international powers and changing politics of the world.</p> Gao Xin Naumana Kiran Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 4 4 12 22 10.47205/jdss.2023(4-IV)02 Conflicts and The Structure of Economy: A Case of Trade in Pakistan <p>Trade and investment are considered crucial elements of long-run growth which along with other factors are also affected by conflicts. This study addresses this issue by taking both internal and external conflicts and its effects on trade. The ARDL approach used for the period of 1984 to 2016. External and internal conflicts both have a statistically significant and negative effect on exports. Government stability has positive effect on exports. Therefore, macroeconomic instability has a negative and statistically significant impact on exports. The law and order and ethnic tension do not have a statistically significant impact on exports. Democratic accountability and socioeconomic conditions also have statistically significant negative and positive impacts on exports, respectively. In the import model, government stability, ethnic tension, law and order, and democratic accountability do not impact imports. External conflict is statistically significant and positive for imports. External and internal conflicts have negative effects on trade (exports and imports) in other aspect of the globe. Therefore, socioeconomic conditions also have a statistically significant negative on imports. The empirical results support the theory of conflicts in Pakistan. Based on the findings, it is suggested that the government may design policies that ensure protection of economy from conflicts and smoothen the flow of trade.</p> Akhtar Gul Shumaila Sadiq Sifat Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-01 2023-10-01 4 4 23 42 10.47205/jdss.2023(4-IV)03 Machismo: Portrayal of Images in Pakistani Cinema <p>This study thoroughly examines the impact of machismo portrayals in Pakistani cinema on young people, emphasizing the importance of considering gender. It looks not only at how often these portrayals appear but also how they reinforce specific ideas about masculinity and femininity. The study also explores how the machismo image has changed from rural to urban settings and how this relates to gender roles. It's important to note that violence is often associated with this image, and the research investigates how this influences how people think about their own gender identity and contributes to harmful stereotypes. Additionally, the study evaluates whether these cinematic portrayals align with or challenge changing gender roles, women's empowerment, and the broader conversation about gender equality in Pakistan today. Overall, this research provides insight into how machismo images in cinema affect the experiences and expectations of young men and women in Pakistan from a gender perspective.</p> Muhbat Ali Shah Muhammad Shahban Sahito Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 4 4 43 52 10.47205/jdss.2023(4-IV)04 Challenges encountered by Secondary School Science Teachers Regarding the Implementation of Blended Learning in Punjab <p>The objective of this research study was to explore the challenges and limitations in implementing blended learning for secondary science teachers in public schools of Punjab. The research design for this investigation was a case study. The case study was chosen to showcase a group of scientific instructors that were sensitive to challenging classroom dynamics and to look into how they interacted as a group in relation to explanations for blended learning's drawbacks. Thematic and open coding were used in the data processing. Axial coding was used to open-code all of the written and audio data. The use of BL for science instruction was not without its challenges. We invited secondary science teachers to address the problems and difficulties with BL instruction. All participants identified different challenges and issues during the teaching through BL. For example, time-consuming, videos stuck some time, electricity shortage &amp; internet connectivity, difficult to reply during the video play, financial resources are limited for maintains, and the examination system are anti-parallels. Based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that the government raise the financial budget allocated to schools for the upkeep of digital tools and the acquisition of a new device to help teachers and students and enhance learning.</p> Shafia Baber Azhar Majeed Qureshi Parveen Akhtar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 4 4 53 59 10.47205/jdss.2023(4-IV)05 Exploring Radicalization among Women in Pakistan: Causative Factors and Impact <p>This study delves into the factors driving radicalization among Pakistani females, shedding light on the sources and elements of their radicalization. Additionally, it examines the recent historical context of sectarian teachings targeting women in Pakistan. Employing a qualitative research design, this investigation employs both descriptive and analytical approaches. Through discourse analysis of the data, we provide compelling evidence of the looming threat of religious radicalization in Pakistan. This threat emanates from socially endorsed beliefs, narratives, and popular religious slogans. Notably, extremist elements have adeptly exploited the religious sentiments of Pakistani women to advance their agendas, resulting in a significant portion of the vulnerable population becoming radicalized. This study also identifies several religious groups actively promoting radical views to garner public support. In conclusion, this article critically assesses the statements made by far-right religious parties, highlighting potential shortcomings, and proposes a pragmatic approach to eradicating radicalization among Pakistani females.</p> Iram Khalid Muqarrab Akbar Waheed Ahmad Khan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 4 4 60 71 10.47205/jdss.2023(4-IV)06