Journal of Development and Social Sciences <h1><a href="">Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</a></h1> <p><strong>Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0.ARL/INC4757)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. is a <strong>Triple-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) en-US Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2709-6254 <p><img src="" alt="Open Access" /></p> <p><strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC) &amp; Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</strong> adheres to <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License</strong>. The authors submitting and publishing in <strong>JDSS</strong> agree to the copyright policy under <strong>creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International license)</strong>. Under this license, the authors published in <strong>JDSS</strong> retain the copyright including publishing rights of their scholarly work and agree to let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. All other authors using the content of <strong>JDSS</strong> are required to cite author(s) and publisher in their work. Therefore, <strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC) &amp; Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</strong> follow an <strong>Open Access</strong> Policy for copyright and licensing.</p> <p><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /> </p> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Signatory of DORA" /></a></p> Relapse Tendency among Individuals with Substance Use: Exploring the influence of Family Dynamic and Drug Abstinence Self - Efficacy <p>The study aimed to investigate the predictive role of family functioning and drug abstinence self-efficacy on relapse tendency, the intermediating role of drug abstinence self-efficacy between family functioning and relapse tendency, and the influence of demographic variables (age, drug use history, reasons for use, drug types, marital status, and employment status) on the study variables. The study highlights the relapse tendencies among individuals with substance use, focusing on the role of family dynamics and drug abstinence self-efficacy. It aims to understand how poor family functioning and low drug abstinence self-efficacy contribute to relapse. The research utilizes the Cognitive Social Learning Theory and Relapse Prevention Model to explore these influences. The research was quantitative, correlation study using a cross-sectional research design. Data was obtained from rehabilitation centres. The study found that poor family functioning and low drug abstinence self-efficacy significantly increase relapse tendencies among individuals with substance use disorders. Regression analysis revealed that family dynamics and self-efficacy are strong predictors of relapse, highlighting the need for family-inclusive interventions. These findings suggest that improving family support and enhancing self-efficacy can effectively reduce relapse rates, emphasizing the importance of comprehensive treatment plans. It is recommended to integrate family-based therapy and self-efficacy training into substance use treatment programs to effectively reduce relapse rates.</p> Adeeba Saleem Sobia Masood Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 5 2 01 17 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)01 Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension: A Descriptive Study Concerning Nurses’ Knowledge at Lady Wallington, Lahore, Pakistan <p>The objective of study is to assess nurses’ knowledge concerning pregnancy-induced hypertension at Lady Wallington Hospital. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is the most common pregnancy complication, the most common cause of maternal death, and a contributing factor to neonatal morbidity and mortality. A descriptive study was conducted in Lady Wallington Hospital, Lahore. There were one hundred nurses in a non-probability purposive sample. Nurses completed self-report, structured questionnaires in the Gynecology Ward including the emergency room and wards medical (using a purposive and non-probability sample). The results show that the bulk of the sample (80%) was between the ages of 31 and 39. The table also reveals that women make up the majority of study participants (56%) and that over half of them were single (56%). About 52% of the study sample had a college nursing degree, and 50% of the sample's total service years were between 11 and 20 years old. The examination of nurses' knowledge about gestational hypertension revealed a good degree of understanding. The study concluded that the knowledge of a good level of nurses about pregnancy-induced hypertension. It is recommended that on-the-job refresher courses are needed.</p> Tayyba Nazar Rabia Khalid Aliza Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 5 2 18 24 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)02 Assessment of Nurses' Knowledge for the Treatment and Prevention of Pregnancy related Hypertension in Punjab, Pakistan <p>The aim is to assess nurses' knowledge regarding the treatment and prevention of pregnancy-related hypertension and find out the association between knowledge of nurses and demographic characteristics. Pregnancy-related hypertension is a medical disorder characterized by vasospasm in the body's small and major arteries during pregnancy. It affects between 5% to 8% of pregnancies overall. A quantitative descriptive correlation research design was employed in the investigation. 52 nurses employed by Sir Ganga Ram Hospital were selected as a convenience non-probability sample, and they were asked to self-administer a questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis techniques were used to examine the data. The results indicate that 75% of the study group, which consisted of individuals aged 20 to 29. Female nurses outnumbered male nurses (69.2%) in the study sample. 53.8% of survey participants held a Bachelor in nursing as their highest degree of schooling. Of the nurses in the study group, 53.8% had one to five years of experience. In conclusion, the results indicate that a greater proportion of the participants in the research group (82.7%) lack training-related courses. It is recommended that seminars, workshops and refresher training are needed to enhance the knowledge among nurses.</p> Sadia Sharif Aqeela Shoukat Rukhsana Bibi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 5 2 25 30 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)03 Peace in Perspective: A Visual Data Analysis of the Global Peace Index 2023 <p>This paper delves into the Global Peace Index (GPI), a comprehensive metric evaluating global peace through factors like safety, security, ongoing conflict, and militarization. The objective is to dissect the GPI's assessment of global peace, identifying key factors that influence a nation's peace status. Employing statistical analysis alongside data visualization techniques, the study methodically examines the GPI's multifaceted criteria. The findings underscore the critical role of safety and security, alongside the impact of ongoing conflicts, in determining a nation's peace status. Notably, the analysis reveals pronounced regional disparities in peace, illustrating the intricate challenges of bolstering global peace. The paper concludes by proposing targeted peace-building initiatives, advocating for a holistic strategy to foster safer, more secure societies globally. It is recommended to address the underlying issues identified, marking a significant step towards realizing the aspirations of the GPI for enhanced global peace.</p> Hani Nasar Itrat Batool Naqvi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-24 2024-05-24 5 2 31 39 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)04 The Strategic Calculus of MBS’s Foreign Policy in a Turbulent Middle East <p>The objective of this study is to analyze his strategies through application of balancing and over-balancing paradigms of neoclassical realism. This research is also an attempt to examine what are the foreign policy interests of Saudi Arabia in the Middle East especially in the context of two perennial conflicts. This study employs descriptive and historic approach to analyze the Saudi Arabia interest in middle east, furthermore primary and secondary data used to justify the argument. Since the discovery of oil, Saudia Arabia has become the apple of the eye of global powers. Being well aware of its significance in the region as well as global level, the Kingdom has strategically used its foreign policy to maintain win-win situation but at some intervals it had to face backlash as well due to its absolute centralized power, control over media and human rights issues. Emergence of Muhammad Bin Salman has once again brought Saudia Arabia in the lime light.</p> Nadia Zaheer Ali Saima Butt Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 5 2 v v 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)05 Role of Social Media on reshaping the Human Behavior: A Case Study of Pakistan <p>Social media applications are the most used digital tools in the current world. These applications have a very great impact on the behavior of the users. This study aims to examine the role of the social media on the behavior of the people and how social media reshape the behavior of a person. This study examined the five most common social media applications named Facebook, twitter, Instagram, TikTok and snap chat that how these applications are involve in reshaping their user’s behavior. Primary data for the research was collected from the 550 respondents who were the frequent users of the social media applications from across the whole Pakistan by the convenience sampling. The gathered data was analyzed with the help of the SmartPLS using the partial least square structural equation modelling technique. According to the results found by the study shows that Instagram is the most effect application in reshaping the human behavior with a combined effect of the 32.3%. while TikTok is the least effect application which contribute in reshaping the behavior of the human with a percentage of 16.5% impact. While the rest of the other three applications have a moderate role in this case. It is recommended for the all the organization are related organization who are working on human behavior can use the digital tools like Facebook, and other social media applications as tool to reshape the people behavior instead of using other traditional methods. It is also recommended to the marketing companies to use these tools for better attraction of their customers.</p> Munir Hussain Imran Azeem Muhammad Kashif Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 5 2 49 60 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)06 The Impact of Social Media on raising Drug Awareness among Students in Educational Institutions <p>The rapid growth of social media has revolutionized communication, especially among young people, offering a powerful platform to address critical issues like drug addiction. This study examines how effectively social media educates students about the dangers of drug use. By analyzing data from various educational institutions in Lahore, the research aims to explore the impact of social media campaigns on students related to drug misuse. Data was collected from 450 students through an adapted questionnaire which revealed that social media significantly enhances students' understanding of the risks associated with drug use. The findings show social media use increase drug awareness among students. The study concludes that, due to its widespread use and accessibility, social media is a vital tool in educating students and addressing the public health issue of drug abuse.</p> Naila Rafique Sidra Huma Saima Iqbal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 5 2 61 70 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)07 Role of E-Journalism in Creating Awareness regarding Gender Equality and Women Empowerment among University Students in Pakistan <p>This study explores the interplay between social media, gender inequality, and women's empowerment, highlighting the significant influence of socio-cultural, economic, and other barriers. Utilizing a survey methodology, data were collected from 550 university students in Lahore, Pakistan, to gauge gender perceptions and experiences. The researchers employed a feminist theoretical framework to guide the analysis. The study aims to evaluate the role of e-journalism in raising awareness about gender inequality and women's empowerment among both men and women in Pakistan. Additionally, it seeks to identify the socio-cultural, political, economic, and technological barriers that contribute to gender inequality in the country. The findings reveal that e-journalism effectively disseminates awareness by showcasing successful stories of women. Nevertheless, political, technological, economic, and socio-cultural obstacles remain significant contributors to gender inequality in Pakistan.</p> Saima Kausar Saima Iqbal Mudassar Hussain Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 5 2 25 30 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)08 Mathematical Problems faced by Hearing Impaired Students: Strategies for Enhancing Learning and Comprehension <p>The objective of this study was to examine the mathematical challenges encountered by students with hearing impairments, as well as strategies for enhancing comprehension and learning. This study examines the challenges and strategies involved in instructing mathematics to children with hearing impairments. The research approach employed is both quantitative and descriptive. A study was conducted with a sample of 170 special education instructors who work with hearing impaired students. These teachers completed a questionnaire that was prepared specifically for this study, providing valuable insights. The findings demonstrate the significant challenges faced by students with hearing impairments in understanding mathematical concepts. To enhance learning, practical strategies such as interactive exercises and the use of sign-language interpreters are recommended. The study's conclusion emphasizes the need of inclusive teaching approaches and customized learning strategies in fulfilling the diverse needs of students with hearing impairments. In order to provide inclusive educational environments for students with hearing impairments, it is recommended to implement diverse teaching methods, offer specific training programs for educators, and promote cooperation among teachers.</p> Rukhsana Bashir Asia Batool Faisal Amjad Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 5 2 83 99 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)09 Correlational Study of Teacher’s Online Enactment and Students Learning Satisfaction <p>The educational landscape of world is in a crisis situation due to COVID-19 and educational institutions are struggling to adept with the help of technology mediated tools to resume the academic activities. However, at this initial phase of crisis situation, decisions are made, steps and actions have been taken. However, required attention and focus has not been paid while decision and acceptance of online, internet based technologies are made the part of education system. Especially, in Pakistani context where there is digital divide and lack for digital literacy. This quantitative study has been conducted in a private higher secondary school of Sindh, Pakistan. The purpose of study is to include the voice of an important stakeholder i.e. Learner, in the application process of online teaching courses. The study is correlational in its nature and would help us to understand the correlation of Teachers online enactment and Students learning satisfaction. The results of study proved that there is strong correlation between these two variables. This suggests that quality of teachers in terms of online teaching skills along with many other factors such as fairness, assessment methods, positive attitude, subject knowledge and assignment allocation are significant for the satisfaction of students learning needs.</p> Shafqat Hussain Ali Gohar Chang Ayaz Latif Siyal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-26 2024-05-26 5 2 100 107 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)10 A Critical Analysis of Salient Amendments in the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan.1973 <p>With reference to the 19th amendment to the Constitution, the document sought to emphasize judicial independence. The objective of the research is to create awareness and high light the importance of 19th amendment and this study will also examine judicial system of 18th and 19th amendment in this descriptive research along with its impact on judicial independence. In state where democracy is guaranteed, the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government to carry out their constitutional duties. All individuals have direct access to these vital establishments, particularly the legal system. In the case of a duty or citizen's right being violated, the parties register their concerns with the state's administrative authority. The protection of the rights of the state's residents depends on judicial independence. The government implemented revolutionary changes through the 19th Amendment to the Constitution. The focus of study was descriptive and qualitative. At the end, it has been concluded. It will be helpful for students, teachers and legal fraternity for reference.</p> Abida Hassan Muhammad Mumtaz Ali Khan Maryam Hassan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 108 114 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)11 Transporting the Translatable Names of Places Untranslatedly: Stylistic Analysis of Sociolinguistic Codes in Twilight in Dehli and Ice Candy Man <p>This study intends to explore unique patterns of sociolinguistic codes from two famous postcolonial novels, i.e., Twilight in Dehli by Ahmed Ali and Ice Candy Man by Bapsi Sidhwa. This is a qualitative descriptive study that employs Paul Simpsons’ Theory of Narrative Stylistics as a framework. For the purpose of data analysis, three categories of words are formed to illustrate the differences between the words that could be translated, the words which had the possibility of being translated, and the words which could not be translated at all. The results of the study show that both of these postcolonial novels are replete with the words that have possibility for using alternative expressions in English, but the novelists have deliberately used the local words as a tool to manifest their true culture and identity. This study recommends to extend such probe of sociolinguistic codes on other postcolonial literary works to fortify these findings.</p> Anam Shahid Shazia Kousar Fareeha Haider Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 115 122 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)12 Analysis of the Contemporary Politics of Palestine-Israel Conflict and Role of Major Powers <p>This research investigates the necessity of statehood for preserving Palestinian identity amid globalization, focusing on the role of major global powers in the Palestine-Israel conflict and examines the involvement of key international actors, including the Palestinian diaspora, in advocating for Palestinian rights against Israeli policies and the Zionist agenda. A qualitative approach is employed, analyzing historical and contemporary sources to understand the political dynamics and the strategies of the involved global powers. The research reveals the varied approaches of the United States, Russia, and China, highlighting past American policies, Russia's multifaceted strategy, and China's cautious diplomacy. The study also highlights the current role of Iran in the conflict and escalating armed skirmishes. It underscores the complex interplay of geopolitical factors affecting the conflict. The study recommends pursuing alternative paths towards resolution, emphasizing the importance of international cooperation and a balanced approach to address the multifaceted nature of the Palestine-Israel conflict.</p> Sadia Mahmood Falki Saareena Asrar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 123 131 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)13 Effectiveness of Using Differentiated Instruction for Enhancing ESL Learners' Individual Needs <p>The present study intends to explore the use of differentiated instructions in Pakistani ESL classrooms. The concept of differentiation is deliberated as a determinant in quality education whether in theory or practice. As far as the ESL/EFL context is concerned, English being lingua franca holds great significance. Differentiated Instruction provides the solution to the challenges faced in learning a language due to the complexity of a language, and the diversity of the learners. A one-size-fits-all strategy is considered a left-out strategy keeping pedagogical approaches in line with 21st-century skills, there is a dire need to prepare learners for global demands. The study followed an interpretive approach and was qualitative. Six ESL teachers were interviewed to gauge their experience regarding DI. Data was analyzed thematically and it has been analyzed that only some elite schools of Pakistan are practicing DI in their ESL classrooms. Therefore, it is recommended to make arrangements for its implementation on a larger scale in Pakistan.</p> Hurria Rehman Sana Baig Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 132 138 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)14 Statecraft and Real Estate Public Policy in Pakistan: Governance, Regulations, and Public Interests <p>The objective of this study is to analyze the implications of statecraft on real estate public policy in Pakistan. This analysis considers the economic significance, regulatory challenges, and socio-political dynamics of the country. The real estate sector in Pakistan is of great importance to the economy, however, it is confronted with regulatory complexity, corruption, and challenges related to urbanization. These issues are influenced by historical and political factors. The methodology employed in this study involved conducting a thematic analysis on literature review articles. The analysis specifically focused on examining the economic impact, regulatory issues, corruption, and government initiatives within the real estate sector. The results of the analysis indicate significant economic contributions, regulatory complexities, and challenges associated with corruption and urbanization. Government initiatives demonstrate potential but necessitate efficient implementation. To address issues and promote sustainable growth in Pakistan's real estate sector, officials prioritize inclusive policies, smart urban planning, improved enforcement mechanisms, infrastructure development, and reforms to the country's land administration.</p> Haider Ali Sheikh Waleed Rasool Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 139 151 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)15 Enhancing Student Learning Outcomes through Blended Learning Strategies: An Empirical Study <p>This quantitative study investigates the impact of blended learning strategies on students' learning outcomes. The research population consists of teachers from Punjab's Education Department, with a final sample size of 246. In order to ensure unbiased representation, participants were selected through the use of simple random sampling. Data was collected using a self-designed questionnaire that utilized a five-point Likert scale. The expert evaluation and pilot testing indicated a high level of internal consistency, ensuring the validity and dependability of the results. Google Forms facilitated data gathering, while the findings were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicate that blended learning is widely esteemed and there is a general agreement on its effectiveness in enhancing engagement, comprehension, and academic performance. Perceptions were not significantly influenced by experience and degrees, but were affected by demographic characteristics. It is recommended that educational curricula integrate blended learning, that teachers undergo training, and that further research be conducted on the impact of demographics on attitudes. This study has contributed to a better understanding of the efficacy of blended learning in educational settings.</p> Bushra Naz Adeel Abbas Faisal Amjad Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 152 165 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)16 Genesis of Federal States Under the Colonial System: A Case Study of Pakistan <p>This study aims to explore the facts pertaining to the genesis of federal States in general and in particular the Pakistan as a federation. This research also discovers the reasons, for the adaptation of federal system in Pakistan. There are various independent States adopted the federal system, and emerged as a model federation on the World’s map. There are 29 Federal States and each State has an exclusive history behind the adaptation of federal system, Particularly the States which were the part of colonial system under the British rule such as U.S, Pakistan Malaysia and India etc. As for as the case study of Pakistan is concerned, the role of a few of political parties in general and in particular the historical role of All India Muslim League and its leadership, the specific role of Quaid-e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founder of Pakistan is a vital and is explored by using the secondary source of data collection, descriptive and historical methods of research study. Pakistan was made a federal State in the result of a series of constitutional reforms since the war of independence 1857 to 1947 in the context of Pakistan movement.</p> Shahida Begum Akhlaque Hussain Irshad Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 166 173 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)17 Effectiveness of Legal Frameworks for Honour Killings in Sindh: The Impact of Sociocultural Influences <p>This study examines the legislative measures aimed at curbing honor killings in Pakistan, alongside the sociocultural elements that impede their effective implementation. It explores the interplay between law and morality in regulating and controlling so-called 'honor' killings, with a specific focus on the Sindh province of Pakistan. Utilizing a qualitative approach, the research highlights the existing legal frameworks designed to protect women. However, these frameworks are often undermined by a weak law enforcement system and entrenched cultural norms. The findings emphasize that beyond legal reforms, sociocultural transformation is crucial to addressing the root causes of honor killings. The study concludes with a call for a multidimensional strategy, encompassing legal amendments, public awareness campaigns, and targeted training programs aimed at shifting societal attitudes that negatively impact women's rights. It also advocates for community-based solutions and enhancements in public and legal education. For future research, the collection of primary data is recommended to capture contemporary views and regional variations more accurately. This approach would facilitate a comprehensive analysis of the barriers to eradicating honor killings in Pakistan.</p> Mazhar Aftab Jokhio Asadullah Almani Suhaib Asif Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 174 184 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)18 Determinants of Maternal Health in Punjab: Evidence from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 2011-2014-2018 <p>The current study aims at analyzing the trend of the key determinants of maternal health through Multiple Indicator Survey for the period of 2011 to 2018. Maternal health is an important phenomenon that determines the status of women in any society. Pakistan with its limited resources though has made some noticeable improvements in maternal health indicators but the country is still behind many internationally set targets and slandered that determine maternal health. The secondary data analysis was used and ten determinants of maternal health were selected. The trends of major determinants for Bahawalpur, Vehari, and Rajanpur districts were analysed by using descriptive statistics.The data retrieved from three major reports show less or no improvements in significant maternal health indicators, in the underdeveloped regions of the country. Programs like lady health workers and the role of mass media may be strengthened to disseminate information on maternal health among women.</p> Sonia Omer Sadia Jabeen Umm e Ayman Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 185 196 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)19 Rise of Hindu Nationalism in Contemporary India: An Analysis of Muslim Marginalization <p>The objective of this study is to delve into the gradual rise of the Hindu nationalism its effects on Indian Muslims in contemporary era. Historically, Nationalism has been crucial element in changing the socio-political dynamics of the South Asian region. India emerged as a secular state after its independence from colonial powers. It became the largest democracy in the world. Almost after three decades Bahartiya Janta Party (BJP) emerged as a Hindu Nationalist party. It paved its way by igniting the Anti-Muslim hatred and Hindu nationalist sentiments. This Hindutva tide affected all the minorities existing in India especially the Muslims through its different movements and policies. Gujarat riots, Ayodhya dispute and Ram Janmabhoomi incidents have been taken into account as case studies to get deeper insight. Moreover, the recent election campaign of BJP and its propagation of Hindutva doctrine to win elections is also examined. Qualitative research methods have been used to assess and analyze the data. This study can provide insights for policymakers, educators, minority rights activists and individuals seeking to navigate the rise of Hindu Nationalism and its impacts on Muslims</p> Iqra Sarfraz Tayba Anwar Rameen Afzal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 218 225 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)20 Prevalence of Junk Food Consumption and its Association with Physical Activity and Sleep Quality Among Research Scholars in Public Universities <p>This study explored the relationship between three different variables including physical activity levels, junk food intake and sleep quality among university students. It was conducted via cross-sectional design involving 329 participants (enrolled in BS and M.Phil. programs) from five different public universities. All the data were collected using validated assessment tools like IPAQ, Junk Food Consumption Survey, and PSQI. A significant association between these lifestyle factors was determined by statistical analysis. The findings indicated that individuals with poor sleep quality were more likely to consume fast food, particularly if they experienced daytime dysfunction because of sleep issues. On the other hand, more physical activity levels were linked to greater responsiveness of the health consequences of consuming junk food. By adding to existing research, this study contributes to the evidence supporting comprehensive interventions targeting multiple aspects of students' lifestyles to foster healthier living environments within academic settings</p> Khizar Mehmood Asif Ali Fariq Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 197 206 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)21 Effects of Classroom Environment on Students Learning at Elementary Level <p>The aim of this study is to explore Effects of Classroom Environment on Student Learning at Elementary Level. The present paper seeks to identify the effects of Classroom Environment on students’ learning and to evaluate the effects of classroom management at elementary level students. Descriptive research method was used by the researcher .Narowal division selected as a population, and district Narowal selected for sample of the study. This study restricted the sample to elementary school students who responded that the Effects of Classroom Environment on Student Learning at Elementary Level. In the 1st phase through convenience sampling teaching for select district Narowal from division Gujranwala. In 2nd phase researcher used simple random technique to select schools, teachers. Simple random sampling technique was used to collection data. Questionnaire was used as data collection tool. In the current study, out of the total 1,043 school, 72 schools (urban, rural) selected through simple random sample technique for the purpose of data collection. In present study 530 female teacher’s responses received. Frequency, percentage, mean score and standard Deviation tests were used to analyses the data collected through SPSS version 25.0.The responses paint a favorable view of the circumstances. Frequency, Percentage, mean score, religion, origins or gender is more prevalent.</p> Nafeesa Rani Ghulam Dastgir Fakhar Ul Zaman Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 207 217 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)22 Impact of Hate Speeches by Political Leaders on Political Behavior among Private University Students in Pakistan: The Mediating Role of Locus of Control <p>This study aims to examine the impact of hate speeches by political leaders on political behavior among private university students, with a focus on the mediating role of locus of control. Hate speeches by political leaders have become prevalent in public discourse, raising concerns about their impact on behavior so it is crucial to understand the relationship between variables for addressing the consequences of rhetoric in political domain. A quantitative research methodology was employed to collect the data from private universities students in Pakistan. Regression and Correlation test have been conducted by using the SPSS. Results have shown that there is no connection between hate speeches and political behavior but there is a positive correlation of hate speeches and political behavior with external locus of control and there is a strong negative association between internal locus of control and political behavior. The recommends a more comprehensive study by collecting a larger sample size to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the variables and their relationships.</p> Irfan Farooq Madiha Azam Majid Mohsin Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 226 233 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)23 Exploring the Scope of Self-Enumeration among Young Adults in Pakistan's Census of 2023 <p>This study explores the scope of self-enumeration for young adults in Pakistan to actively participate in the digital census process, specifically through self-enumeration in the Census of 2023. Censuses and surveys are very significant statistical exercises. The main objective was to understand the willingness and ability of young adults to actively participate in the digital census process by providing their own information. Secondary objectives of the research were to explore the usability access that could influence young adults' decision to self-enumerate. Totally data was collected from (n) 137 young adults. The study based on a purposive sample of individuals aged 18–35 years. The closed-ended online survey tool was used for data collection. For data analysis, percentage and frequency distribution test was proceeded through SPSS. The study evaluated respondents' perceptions of various characteristics of the census and the self-enumeration portal. Furthermore, the results of the study proved that 44.3% of young adults wanted to enumerate through self-enumeration, but due to improper facilitations and high limitations, only 33.4% of adults were enumerated through a self-enumeration portal. Moreover, respondents' preferences supported self-enumeration, although a notable portion still favored an enumerator taking part in enumeration. These findings support meaningful policy implications, stressing the possibility of growing self-enumeration initiatives among young adults. Based on the preliminary findings, it is recommended that a country-based study of young adults from the various fields and the importance of the census should be conducted.</p> Suleeman Hussain Ifra Hassan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 234 243 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)24 China Pakistan Economic Corridor and Sustainable Environment: Development, Impacts, and Policies <p>China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is very significant project owing to its development in Pakistan and China. It is evident that this project is promoting sustainable development in both countries in many ways. The objective of this research paper is to study about the sustainability of CPEC in adopting the environment related initiatives. It has been argued that CPEC is a difference maker in terms of improving infrastructure, protecting environment and boosting of the trade between Beijing and Islamabad. That is why, both nations have adopted multi-dimensional initiatives to save the environment. However, there is need to improve this process. Still there are many environmental challenges to this significant project. Considering the development under this project both Pakistan and China aspire to engage in clean energy cooperation to ensure sustainable environment. Both countries need to formulate guidelines and protocols for a green investment project roadmap to address the challenges of sustainable environment which are still missing at the policy level. By employing qualitative methods based on research material from secondary sources, this research aims to study the initiatives taken by Pakistan to make CPEC an eco-friendly and environmentally sustainable project. This is evident that CPEC project experience moderate but short term environment challenges due major infrastructure reforms. Furthermore, these environmental challenges are stern and can create hindrance in economic development for Pakistan and China if certain environmental regulations could not be adopted. This paper recommends that both states needs to adopt concrete, composite, bilateral environmental cooperation for the sustainability of CPEC project for durable time frame.</p> Muhammad Faisal Muhammad Usman Askari Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 244 256 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)25 Pakistan’s Climate Conundrum: Revealing the Nexus Between Climate Change and Internal Migration <p>Migration due to climate change has become a common phenomenon worldwide, and Pakistan is not an exception. Climate-impacted migrants not only face socio-economic implications as security risks but migrant communities also suffer from exploitation. In Pakistan, Climate-induced migration poses challenges for every province. The study examines the relationship between international migration and climate change in Pakistan and evaluates the impact of climate change on different regions. Qualitative research with secondary data sources has been used. Using a thematic analysis, a researcher has examined the dataset from several aspects and highlighted different patterns and how they relate to one another. The study finds that internal migration is an adaptive strategy for flexibility to climate change and offers economic opportunities and challenges in migrated urban centers. The Research finds that migration can serve positively and effectively if adaptation strategies allow the vulnerable population to diversify their income resources along with the environmental changes. Therefore, study suggests that government should mitigate migration issues, reduce conflicts, and promote sustainable development.</p> Bibi Saira Nouman Muhammad Nouman Shams Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 257 266 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)26 Legislation for Women’s Rights in Pakistan: Considering the Dynamic Role of the Senate Committees (2018-2021) <p>The purpose of study is to examine Senate of Pakistan’s working concerning women’s rights in Pakistan, with a particular emphasis on contribution of the Senate Committees during 2018-2021. Pakistan, since its inception, worked for women empowerment so the study provides a thorough analysis of the legislation. The study examines whether the Senate Committees effectively worked for championing gender-sensitive issues that advanced women's socio-economic and political involvement or not? The study conducted through analytical method of research by analyzing legislations, committee reports, and newspapers. The research concludes that Senate Committees had effectively worked for promoting gender equality and women’s rights. The legislative dynamics and institutional mechanisms of Senate Committees also revealed its effectiveness for securing women’s rights. Conversely, government faced obstacles in enacting laws; therefore, this study recommends that the policies and laws should be implemented firmly as well as steps should be taken for public awareness in this regard.</p> Sundas Aslam Sidra Mubashar Hamid Iqbal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 267 278 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)27 Assessing the Geopolitical Shifts in South Asia due to Climate Change: Analyzing the Brahmaputra River Basin (2010-2020) <p>This research investigates the impact of climate change on the geopolitical dynamics of South Asia, focusing on India, China, and Bangladesh, which share the Brahmaputra River basin. The changing climate significantly affects these nations, with the political landscape of South Asia playing a crucial role in shaping regional dynamics. The Brahmaputra River basin is vulnerable to climate-induced challenges, such as altered river flow, increased flooding, and changes in sediment transport, which impact water resources and infrastructural development, influencing the social and economic well-being of the populations in these countries. Utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, the study combines climate models, hydrological data analysis, and geopolitical assessments to evaluate the effects of climate change on the Brahmaputra River basin and its implications for regional cooperation and conflict. The findings reveal that climate change exacerbates existing water-related challenges, leading to heightened flood risks, disrupted sediment transport, and strained water resources, threatening socio-economic stability. The research underscores the urgent need for collaborative strategies to address these impacts, emphasizing the importance of integrated water resource management to mitigate geopolitical tensions and promote regional stability.</p> Asia Mukhtar Wania Waseem Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 289 290 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)28 Challenges to Women’s Political Participation in Makran Division of The Balochistan Province of Pakistan <p>The paper aims to explore the relation between religion, economy, culture, and the political status of women in Makran. Makran, being a division of the Province of Balochistan located at the southwest of the province, is rich in intellect and history. The region is a conflict-ridden zone at present badly hit by the waves of Baloch insurgency. Even though the participation of women in the field of education is quite encouraging, yet they have a very meagre share in politics. Religious considerations, economic dependence on males and cultural values contribute to create problems for women to engage in political affairs. Appropriate literature is reviewed to identify the issues that act as stumbling blocks to prevent women of Makran from the exercise of their constitutional right to make their presence felt in legislation and policy making. The kind of purposive sampling is used by conducting a survey to collect data and analyze it to arrive at a workable solution of the challenges that women of the area face. However, the results of the study suggest that women of Makran have very poor performance in politics, since the entire division has only three representatives in assemblies. Women cannot make decisions independently in the presence of male dominance. Until females are economically independent their political autonomy remains an unachievable dream. Civil society, being an integral part of the triangle of the modern state needs to be vigilant in the propagation of gender equality. Policies like creation of women party caucuses and networks, more reserved seats in assemblies and affirmative actions will serve well to ensure proportional representation of women in the political process promoting democracy and sustainability.</p> Changiz Ahmed Sidra Abdul Ghafoor Mumtaz Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 291 302 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)29 Hate Speech on Social Media: A Study of User’s Perspective <p>Due to the growing use of digital and social networks, users are able to share their thoughts and opinions, however hate speech causes tension and contain the possibility of a crisis of unimaginable dimensions on a national or even an international level. This study investigates the user’s perspective regarding legal framework of hate speech on social media. This study also ensures social responsibility on social media. Theory of Reasoned Action and Uses and Gratification theory as theoretical frameworks helped to develop narratives on the issues. Researchers employed the survey method to collect data in accordance with the paradigm of quantitative research methodology. The findings show that there is an association because of lack of trust and awareness of policies leads to comment post or share controversial issues and that leads to hate speech. There is also association between usage of users of digital media and their reaction on any controversial issue that leads to Hate Speech.</p> Sumera Batool Maryam Aslam Ehsan Elahi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 303 314 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)30 Impact of Credit Advanced by Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited on the Income of Farmers in the Livestock Sector in District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa <p>This study examines the impact of credit advanced by ZTBL on the income of farmers in the livestock sector in district Dir Lower, KP. A multistage random sampling technique was employed to randomly select district Dir Lower in the first stage, followed by four tehsils. The Yamane formula and Proportional allocation technique were used to randomly select a sample size of 298 farmers from a total of 1200 loanee farmers. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire and personal interviews during 2017–2020. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A multiple linear regression model was applied to quantitatively determine the impact of ZTBL credit on the income of farmers in the livestock sector. The estimated results show that ZTBL credit has a positive and statistically significant impact on farmers' income in the livestock sector. Additionally, other variables, such as age, education level, family size, farm size, livestock holdings, and farming experience, also show a positive and statistically significant relationship with farmers' income. The study recommends that ZTBL should introduce interest-free loans based on Islamic partnership, recognize its friendly policy regarding collateral requirements, and simplify the credit procedure to facilitate credit access. Furthermore, the study suggests that ZTBL should increase its local branches to support farmers and increase their income.</p> Ishaq Ahmad Sohail Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 315 326 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)31 Assessing the Effectiveness of Bloom's Taxonomy in Architectural Design Studios: A Study on Implementing Outcome-Based Education in Pakistan <p>This research aims to evaluate the effectiveness and implementation of Bloom's Taxonomy specifically in the architectural institutions of Pakistan with design studios taken as a specific case. The Bachelor of Architecture degree program is designed to give architectural education to participants; focusing on developing skills related to building planning and construction. These skills can be achieved by incorporating the outcome-based education (OBE) system in the curriculum focusing on skill and knowledge building. Bloom's Taxonomy is a powerful tool for promoting OBE in education. A qualitative analysis based on a questionnaire survey was conducted among faculty members of recognized institutions offering Bachelor in Architecture programs, using a convenience sampling technique. The results show that incorporating Bloom’s Taxonomy in architectural design studios can improve student learning outcomes and critical thinking ability. It is recommended to integrate the Outcome-Based Education system into the curriculum of architecture to enhance graduate learning milestones and guarantee successful completion of the degree program.</p> Faiqa Khilat Beenish Mujahid Farah Jamil Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 327 334 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)32 Pakistani English: An Analysis of Grammatical-Syntactical Structures of Pakistani English Novels <p>The research aims at investigating how the Pakistani English Novel writers have deployed grammatical syntactical structures typical of Pakistani English variety in their writings. It’s a natural factor when two languages come in contact with each other they are get influenced by each other. Same is the case with Pakistani English variety. The study also aims at how Urduised words contribute to the unique characteristics of Pakistani English variety and in which contexts these words are used. The research is based on the model proposed by Mahboob (2004; 2009). The data is collected from three different novels written by Pakistani English Novel writers Ahmad Ali and Bapsi Sidhwa. The data is analyzed qualitatively. Different grammatical and syntactical structures are collected from the three texts and are analyzed qualitatively. The results reveal that Pakistani English is unique and legitimate at its place and differs from Standard British English not only in its grammatical forms but also at the syntactic constructions too.</p> Saima Jamshaid Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 335 352 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)33 Charismatic Leadership in South Asian Political History: A Comparative Analysis of Jinnah and Gandhi <p>This study investigates the charismatic leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Mahatma Gandhi, analysing their influence on South Asian political history. The primary objective is to compare their leadership qualities and their impact on their respective political movements. Background information highlights the importance of Max Weber's theory of charisma in understanding their influence. The methodology involves historical and analytical methods, utilizing primary sources like speeches and secondary sources such as books and academic articles. Results indicate Jinnah's strategic political acumen and communication skills were crucial in creating Pakistan, contrasting with Gandhi's moral authority and nonviolent approach that faced challenges in achieving political unity. The study underscores the distinct nature of their charisma and its significant impact on South Asian political history. Recommendations suggest further comparative analyses of political leaders to understand the role of charismatic leadership in historical movements.</p> Ghulam Shabbir Sharaf Ali Khizar Jawad Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 353 361 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)34 Proxy Wars and Militancy: Assessing the Impact of Franco-Russian Rivalries on African Armed Conflicts and Regional Stability <p>This research examines the complex dynamics of proxy wars and militancy driven by the geopolitical rivalries between France and Russia in Africa. Focusing on conflict zones such as the Central African Republic, Mali, and Libya, it explores how these powers use local armed groups to secure strategic interests and access to resources. The study highlights the historical context of African nations as former colonies, particularly noting how dependent policy agreements with France maintain neocolonial ties. Through a comparative analysis of French and Russian military and political strategies, the research reveals significant impacts on regional stability and governance. It also addresses the humanitarian toll, including displacement and human rights abuses, and the economic damage from resource exploitation. The study underscores the greed of both nations for Africa’s natural wealth, exacerbating conflicts and impeding development. Furthermore, the research evaluates international responses, focusing on the roles of the United Nations and the African Union in conflict mediation and peacekeeping. By providing a comprehensive analysis of these geopolitical maneuvers, the study aims to shed light on the broader implications for African security and development. It offers strategic policy recommendations to mitigate conflict, enhance stability, and promote sustainable peace, guiding policymakers, scholars, and international bodies in addressing the challenges posed by Franco-Russian rivalries.</p> Syed Rizwan Haider Bukhari Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 362 372 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)35 The Impact of Globalization and Human Rights: A Case of Rana Plaza in Bangladesh <p>The main aim of this paper is examining the impact of globalization on human rights, focusing on the tragic Rana Plaza collapse in Bangladesh. Globalization has led to increased international trade and investment, but it has also raised concerns about its potential negative impacts on human rights, such as labor exploitation and unsafe working conditions.<br>A qualitative case study approach was used, involving government official documents, and human rights activists’ campaigns. The findings indicate that the pursuit of profit and cost reduction in a globalized economy has contributed to the erosion of labor rights in Bangladesh. The Rana Plaza collapse revealed systemic failures in safety regulations, labor law enforcement, and corporate accountability. The disaster had a devastating impact on human lives and deepened social inequalities. To mitigate the negative impacts of globalization on human rights, the study recommends to strengthen labor laws and enforcement mechanisms, promote responsible business practices and fair labor policies, enhance workers' rights to organize and bargain collectively, increase investment in worker safety and health, provide access to justice and compensation for victims of labor rights violations.</p> Sana Asif Bano Qudsia Amna Bibi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 5 2 373 378 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)36 Protecting Environment: Health Implications of Sand Mining in Residential Areas of District Kasur <p>This paper aims to examine the adverse effects to public health due to sand mining in residential areas .It is inalienable right of every citizen to be dealt with strictly in accordance with law as enshrined in Articles 4, 9, 24, and 25 of the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973 and no action is detrimental to life, liberty, reputation, and property of the citizen is called for even otherwise one of most precious fundamental rights that all the persons shall be dealt no discrimination by the statutory functions but unfortunately these basic fundamental rights are being infringed because of sand mining. In this study mixed-method approach is used, incorporating a literature review, policy document analysis, and statistical data publically available. The significant correlation between respiratory health issues experienced by local residents and dust pollution from mining activities has been observed for which policy recommendations has been given.</p> Muhammad Imran Jannat Rashid Jannat Naseeb Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 5 2 379 385 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)37 FATA Merger: Impacts on Status of Tribal Women <p>This study examines the merging of the former Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and its effects on the status of Pashtun tribal women. The major goals were to comprehend the tribal traditions and standards that have traditionally impeded the development of women, and to examine the impact of integrating changes on improving women's rights in the area. The stereotypes associated with women not only impede their ability to contribute to the progress of the state, but also deprive them of their basic rights. This issue is especially concerning in less developed nations such as Pakistan, where gender inequalities are more noticeable. The study employes a qualitative research methodology to examine the impact of FATA merger on the tribal women. This study elucidates the connection between tribal practices and the possibility of change, emphasizing the important contribution of women to the socio-economic progress of the region. This study recommends that to promote and enhance the former Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), both the national and provincial government should prioritize the inclusion of women in economic endeavors and engage them in decision-making procedures.</p> Waleed Asghar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 5 2 386 395 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)38 Devolution Plan on the Administrative System of Pakistan: An Analysis and Implementation (2001-2008) <p>The main objective of this study to understand the participation and representation of people at local level in the scheme of devolution of powers. It also highlights the problems and issues faced at the local level in order to assess the effectiveness governance and its influences on the administrative system of Pakistan. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the third administrative tier ‘local government system’ is believed as precursor of democracy and development. Local government; decentralization and their significance in public assistance have become increasingly important issues in the political scenario. The idea of decentralization is to transfer power and responsibilities from the central government to the local authorities in order to improve governance, accountability, and public service delivery. General Pervez Musharraf’s Government reestablished the administrative structure and started to improve the tasks of the local government in Pakistan. He started the program of decentralization to devolve the powers and authorities with the name of ‘Devolution of Powers’. This research is descriptive and analytical in nature. Secondary source is used for collection of data. The purpose of the research is to investigate the administrative structure under devolution plan introduced in Musharraf’s period. The finding suggests that in Pakistan, as governments seek to improve development of local areas and make local bodies more responsive to local needs, there has been a growing shift towards decentralization.</p> Saira Iqbal Munaza Sarwar Saima Butt Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 5 2 396 406 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)39 Environmental Governance and Policy Implementation in Pakistan: Assessing Institutional Capacities and Challenges <p>The main focus of the study was to comprehend environmental governance and policy execution in Pakistan and also to find out the barricades for operative policy enactment, including synchronization problems and civic responsiveness gaps. Environmental management in Pakistan is a challenge due to confusion in the structure of institutions, lack of relevant resources and mostly actuated by poor regulatory capacity. Analysis of current academic literature and adherent consultants’ proposals and international benchmarks. The government of Pakistan capacity is dubious in terms of financial resources available and the institution's ability to deal with environmental problems in the federal, provincial, and local spheres. Promote and fortify the organizations engaging in the regulation and enforcement of laws, encourage cooperation in between different agencies, enhance public awareness, implement environmental considerations in development strategies, and utilize international assistance. The aforementioned measures should be adopted in Pakistan taking into consideration that the country and its individuals should invest in the conservation of the environment to develop sustainably and create a healthier nation. The world is also faced with serious environmental problems and thus requires urgent and significant attention and support to solve these challenges.</p> Farzana Zaheer Syed Muhammad Waris Awan Tahira Mumtaz Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 5 2 407 419 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)40 Factors Influencing Health Facility Births: Insights from the 2017 Pakistan Demographic Health Survey <p>Infant mortality in Pakistan was alarmingly high until the early 1990s, at 86 deaths per 1,000 live births. Despite a 24-point decline over the past three decades, reducing the rate to 62 per 1,000, Pakistan remains among countries with the highest infant mortality rates. This study evaluated the extent, causes, and associated risk factors of infant mortality in Pakistan. Using Univariate and cross-tabulation analyses, data were weighted by survey year. A two-stage multi-variable logistic regression model analyzed the risk factor of childbirth in health facilities. Results included odds ratios (OR) and Chi-square tests for categorical differences. Interviews with 167,151 women revealed 84,352 (50.46%) gave birth in health facilities: 22,089 in 1991, 8,166 in 2007, 11,751 in 2013, and 41,372 in 2017. Health facility births rose from 13.6% in 1991 to 64% in 2017. Urban residence, age 30+, secondary education, and government employment were significant factors in health facility usage.</p> Amir Shahzad Nazakat Ali Hafiz Bilal Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 5 2 420 433 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)41 Understanding the Nature of Political Economy in Developing States: A Study of the Structural Issues in the Political Economy of Pakistan <p>This study aims to explore strategies to empower Pakistani math students with hearing impairments to have greater autonomy in their educational journey. The objective is to identify effective methodologies and examine the viewpoints of educators. A quantitative research approach was used to choose a sample of 150 teachers using simple random selection. Data was collected using a questionnaire that was prepared by the researchers themselves. The collected data was then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicate that the implementation of inclusive policies, targeted training, and collaborative initiatives to enhance mathematical education for children with hearing impairments are positively welcomed. Teachers' judgments were influenced by variables such as gender, age, education, and posting location. It is recommended to implement specialized teacher training, promote collaboration between educators and families, and allocate finances to ensure universal access to support services. The study emphasizes the necessity of establishing inclusive strategies tailored to meet the diverse needs of students with hearing impairments and highlights the importance of providing instructors with sufficient support and resources. Policymakers and stakeholders should strive to create an inclusive environment that promotes success in mathematics education for all children by addressing inequalities and understanding the factors that influence teachers' viewpoints.</p> Sharaf Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-06-10 2024-06-10 5 2 648 659 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II)60 Tourism in Pakistan: An Economic Analysis <p>The study aims to explore that as per United Nations Sustainable Development goals’ (2015) targets, the entire world has to bring down its poverty levels from absolute poverty; i.e. people earning less than 2.15 dollars a day as prescribed in September 2022 by World Bank. This paper explores the economic impact of tourism industry in Pakistan to uplift economy to back step its poverty line, focusing the potential of tourism industry as a driver of economic growth and development. The study examines to check impact of certain variables such as travelers, international tourists and employment generation due to Tourist industry influencing its Economics growth, i.e. Gross Domestic Product, and proposes strategies to upgrade tourism industry to foster economic growth of the economy. To analyze data set Time series data is taken from the year 1995 to 2021 from world Development index and Ordinary least square method is applied using E-Views to check the results. Results depict that these variables have significant impact to upgrade economic growth of the country if we enhance tourism sector in Pakistan. The findings underscore the significance of strategic planning, investment, and E-marketing in harnessing the full potential of tourism in Pakistan. Pakistan have privilege to enjoy four seasons being hub of historical places and legacy of Mughal Empires from high peak mountains of Himalaya to the beauty of Kashmir, Desert of Thar to different valleys such as Hunza, Chitral, Rumbur and Leepa and plains, so visitors do have lots of attractions to come and visit Pakistan, now the need is to incorporate Pakistan’s tourism industry with public private partnership to channelize its digital marketing and E bookings as well more financial support is required to maintain its traditional buildings and tourists places.</p> Kalsoom Ahmed Saleem Rahpoto Farhan Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 5 2 434 446 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)42 Developing Functional English Vocabulary of the Students of Computer Sciences through Facebook at University of Kotli AJ&K <p>Application of innovative teaching techniques and methods has been in regular use to develop vocabulary of English language learners around the globe. In Pakistan, the learners are taught English by using traditional teaching methodologies. Major objective of the current study is to develop functional vocabulary of the students through the use of English podcasts shared on Facebook. In this respect, 20 students from the department of Computer Sciences at University of Kotli AJK were selected as sample. Pre-test strategy was used to determine the existing level of the students in terms of vocabulary. The students engaged themselves to gather the required vocabulary as advised and were tested by giving them the conversational dialogues on every 6th day during the whole month. The data was collected as a result of 05 post-tests which were marked and graded. The data were analyzed through simple statistical tools. The results of the study showed that in every test the students improved gradually and their marks increased approximately up to 20% in 30 days than the pre-test results. The study recommends to use Facebook as well as other social media platforms to improve their functional vocabulary.</p> Muhammad Hammad U Salam Arshad Mehmood Shujahat Ali Rathore Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-06-13 2024-06-13 5 2 447 453 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)43 An Overview on Multidimensional Child Poverty targeting Sustainable Development Goals in Punjab, Pakistan <p>This paper embodies a theoretical and empirical overview of multidimensional child poverty and child deprivation approaches based on measuring child poverty outcomes in Punjab, Pakistan. Current study provides different dimensions or indicators of multidimensional child poverty like housing, children’s survive and thrive, children’s condition, standard of living and learning( use as a proxy for education) that has clear vision to generate socio-economic development and children’s development towards attaining sustainable development goals across the province, Punjab. In this regard, this profile of dimension or indicators of multidimensional child poverty and child deprivation analysis will serve as an important and guiding tools for provincial departments (Punjab) to strategies or policies their resource and budget allocation to achieve the sustainable development agenda, 2030.</p> Bushra Yaqoob Faiz Ur Rahim Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences 2024-06-13 2024-06-13 5 2 454 467 10.47205/jdss.2024(5-II-S)44