Journal of Development and Social Sciences <h1><a href="">Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</a></h1> <p><strong>Orients Social Research Consultancy (OSRC) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0.ARL/INC4757)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. is a <strong>Triple-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> en-US <p><img src="" alt="Open Access" /></p> <p><strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC) &amp; Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</strong> adheres to <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License</strong>. The authors submitting and publishing in <strong>JDSS</strong> agree to the copyright policy under <strong>creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International license)</strong>. Under this license, the authors published in <strong>JDSS</strong> retain the copyright including publishing rights of their scholarly work and agree to let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. All other authors using the content of <strong>JDSS</strong> are required to cite author(s) and publisher in their work. Therefore, <strong>ORIENTS SOCIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANCY (OSRC) &amp; Journal of Development and Social Sciences (JDSS)</strong> follow an <strong>Open Access</strong> Policy for copyright and licensing.</p> <p><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /> </p> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Signatory of DORA" /></a></p> (Dr. Ijaz Ahmed Tatlah) (Dr. Fariha Sohil) Mon, 01 Apr 2024 03:48:15 +0500 OJS 60 The Motivation Behind Binge-Watching Practices: Impact on Health in Pakistan <p>Many people like binge-watching. It means watching 2-4 episodes in one sitting. Various reasons have led young adults to binge-watch, which has grown very popular. This study's main objective is to check the effects of binge-watching on psychological and physical health. Under the theoretical framework of uses and gratifications, the researchers use a quantitative approach and convenient sampling techniques to collect data from all ages and genders in Pakistan. The online survey was conducted conveniently to collect the sample from the population. Focused on 300 participants, the study received 386 participants. The data indicates binge-watching is driven by Enjoyment, relaxation, escape from boring routines, diversion from stressful events, loneliness relief, parasocial contacts, and cliffhanging episodes. Results show Netflix is the most popular. Furthermore, results conclude that loss of control over content consumption, increased feelings of loneliness, disruption of a healthy sleep cycle, procrastination, and feeling stressed out or anxious are some health impacts that binge-watchers might face in the aftermath of binge-watching. Future Recommendations include the study being done with a qualitative technique for more in depth analysis of effects of binge watching on health.</p> Huda Akram, Dr. Ayesha Qamar, Dr. Malik Adnan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Weak Occupational Health & Safety (OHS) Compliance in the Manufacturing Sector in Pakistan: Recommendations for Improvement <p>This study identifies many areas of concern which affect the OHS implementations. A quantitative study was conducted through a survey questionnaire and filled out by 65 respondents. Relative Importance Index was employed to obtain the results. SPSS was used for analysis. The analysis of data revealed several key findings regarding factors influencing OHS compliance in SMEs in the construction sector. Significant determinants included the integration of safety training, the effectiveness of safety inspections, and peer influence. However, there was also a prevalent lack of awareness, insufficient implementation of safety measures, and inadequate safety training. Factors such as outdated equipment, poor working conditions, and limited resources further contributed to heightened occupational hazards. This research aims to provide the recommendations for improvement of OHS compliance in Pakistan's manufacturing industry for a safer and healthier work environment. Many people have to play a significant role in increasing the compliance in manufacturing sector whether it is workers or managers. Many hazards can be prevented by sticking to OHS regulations and maintaining the ergonomics and workers’ training.</p> Muhammad Yaqoob, Dr. Waheed Asghar, Sohail Anwar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Benefits and Challenges for Pakistan <p>This paper dissects prospects and difficulties for Pakistan at public and global levels for the making of mechanism to defeat the considerations of opponents. The researcher discusses outstanding features of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and efforts to analyses the opportunities and challenges coming along its way. The project was launched after Chinese President’s visit to Pakistan in 2015 and project has so far reaped significant economic, external and strategic benefits for Pakistan, but with the CPEC faces a number of challenges. In this research highlights the significance of the CPEC in China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and focuses on the strategic significance of Gwadar port as well as the significance of the CPEC for both China-Pakistan that is providing the shortest connectivity to China with Central Asia, West Asia, South Asia and onward to Europe. Moreover, it emphasizes on how distance will be abbreviated for oil transportation from Gulf to China and will empower Beijing to assume a significant part as a significant import and export corridor in the world. It additionally resolves the inquiry concerning the import/export imbalance among China and Pakistan and features that the CPEC will also boost the bilateral trade. In this research has utilized a descriptive, comparative, analytical, and qualitative, approaches, through Graham Allison “Rational Actor Model”. Secondary data has been analyzed through document analysis. Pakistan has to face both challenges and benefits at the same time. Furthermore, the study examines various segments of the development and prospects of the CPEC and questions the threat perception for the game changer project the CPEC and how Pakistan can handle these threats. The role of international players to destabilize CPEC is also the burning question of the time that needs to be dealt with iron hands. This study will be useful for policy makers, diplomats and researchers.</p> Muhammad Nouman Ashraf Khan, Prof. Dr. Syed Mussawar Hussain Bukhari Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Unveiling Climate Consciousness: Assessing Perceptions based on Social Media and Mass Communication Strategies among Balochistan University Students <p>Climate change transformed Pakistan into 5th most vulnerable nation across globe facing threats of food and water scarcity, increased flooding, extreme heat, more disease, and economic loss. Balochistan is its largest province and challenges are multifold. In order to face these, role of mass communication and social media is vital and needs exploration to evaluate and improve. Climate change forced major threat across Pakistan. Quetta as capital of Baloshistan acts as hub of educational institutions. Hence sensitization amongst students needed exploration to identify gaps and future strategies. Online questionnaires using purposive sampling method was used to collect data from three universities during COVID19 pandemic. Major of the respondents were aware of climate change, its causes, its impacts and role of media was acknowledged to be critical for future mass scale sensitization. Future strategies must incorporate social media and digital means in social and public sensitization.</p> Architect Omer Shujat Bhatti, Architect Saad Mujahid, Engineer Nuaman Ishfaq Mughal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Maternal Mortality in Pakistan: The Potential Role of Community Midwives <p>Current study explored the potential role of Community Midwives (CMWs) in maternal mortality in Pakistan. For this, qualitative research method was employed and data were collected through key informant interviews from 384 respondents including CMWs, healthcare providers like doctors, and expectant mothers. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. It was found that CMWs are playing pivotal role in five main categories including antenatal care services, postnatal care services, skilled birth assistance, family planning counselling and services, and health promotion and education. CMWs potential role resulted in increased maternal healthcare utilization and improved health outcomes for expectant mothers in their respective communities. However, the issue of maternal mortality is still prevailing in the country. Therefore, there is a need for more comprehensive role of CMWs which may be attained through more specific research towards identification and address of the constraints of the midwifery program.</p> Shaista Naz, Humera Amin, Aniqa Sayed Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Work Life Balance and Job Satisfaction as Functions of Work Stress in Employees during Covid-19 <p>The present study was aimed at finding the predictive relationship between workplace stress, work life balance and job satisfaction among employees during Covid-19. After literature review following hypotheses were made, Work life balance would be significantly predicted by workplace stress in employees; Job satisfaction would be significantly predicted by workplace stress in employees; There would be gender differences in the scores of workplace stress and work life balance in employees. The sudden outbreak of pandemic ocvid-19 posed a lot of health and psychosocial challenges. The era of Work-from home, not only changed employee’s workplace but also their life styles were impacted in terms of managing work life from personal space. It also lead to attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. By using a purposive sampling strategy, 60 employees of public and private sector organizations were recruited from Karachi, Pakistan. The sample included employees from diverse range of industries and professions and from mid to senior level. In order to check these hypotheses, standardized measures of Work place stress scale, Work life balance self-assessment questionnaire and job satisfaction scale were employed along with a demographic data sheet. Findings revealed a significant relationship between work place stress and work life balance [r=.674; R2=.455, F (1, 58) = 48.389, p&lt;.001]. Gender differences revealed more work place stress experienced by women and also the work life balance was poorer in them. Following the empirical study, we found that a state of balance between professional and personal life generates satisfaction, a higher degree of work stress, decreased performance, and reduced employees’ job satisfaction.</p> Dr. Rabia Mushtaq, Dr. Sajid Iqbal Alyana, Omama Hashmi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Impact of Despotic and Autocratic Leadership on Employees’ Deviant Behavior, with the Moderation of Perceived Organizational Justice <p>The present study investigates the impact of autocratic and despotic leadership styles on employees’ deviant behavior, with the moderating effect of perceived organizational justice. In the realm of research, there exists significant concern regarding the influence of despotic and autocratic leadership styles on employees' deviant behavior, particularly within service-oriented industries such as banking and educational institutions. Therefore, this study helps to understand how these leadership styles may affect deviant behavior among employees. This study used a quantitative survey-based research methodology, Data was collected from 356 employees of different banks and universities in Rawalpindi, Islamabad, and Lahore. The findings show a positive and significant effects of autocratic and despotic leadership styles on employees’ deviant behavior. Results also indicate that the relationship between autocratic leadership and employees' deviant behavior is moderated by perceived organizational justice. Future researchers should explore different industries, use multi-source data, and different mediators in the relationship between negative leadership styles and deviant behavior for a diversified sample size.</p> Nayyab Khizer, Amina Tariq, Nyela Ashraf Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Academic Usage of Social Media by University Students in Pakistan: Merits, Demerits and Challenges <p>The current study is to assess the social media usage for academic purpose by university students in Pakistan and its benefits, advantages, drawbacks, shortcomings, disadvantages as well as challenges for social networking sites in Pakistan. The country is facing bans on social media sites which is harming the right of freedom of expression of the society. Keeping in considerations all these challenges and situations the study is designed to do by using the survey technique and opinion of 200 hundred students from different universities was collected on the phenomenon as well as the data for commanding the social media by authorities was qualitatively analyzed. The conceptual framework was set in line to uses and gratification theory and examined accordingly. The study concludes that academic accomplishments by social media were increased in recent years but still social media is used for entertainment purpose at large and suggested that no social media forum should be banned.</p> Dr. Irem Sultana, Hamid Yaseen Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Income and Expenditure Relationship in Local Municipalities: A Case Study of Sindh Province <p>This research paper examines the effect of income over expenditures in local municipalities of Sindh. The major income sources are provincial grants and local revenue generated through local taxes and bills. The relationship between income and expenditure is analyzed through Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Fixed Effect Method (FEM) using time series data (for years 2014-2023) and panel data includes time and entities. The results reveal a significant positive effect of income on expenditure. The relationship shows that expenditure increases more than income both individually and collectively. Surprisingly, these local municipalities do not default despite higher expenditure than income as per relationship. However, the income estimate of both time series and panel data estimation method is larger than unity value. This could be because expenditures on municipal services are investments which return in the form of income. This relationship may be exploited and upscaled to increase local income of municipalities.</p> Jhaman Das Hirani, Rafique Ahmed Chandio, Muhammad Akram Gilal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 A Socio-Economic and Environmental Interpretation of Barkat Market Lahore through Urban Acupuncture <p>The study is focused on the application of Urban Acupuncture in revitalizing the degenerated areas particularly for the economic sustainability. This technique is used globally for the revitalization of market squares by implanting the small economic interventions and excluding the negative spots through planning. The study also examines an area's productivity after implementing a few treatments at key spots in an urban square, with the goal of maximizing the advantages of urban acupuncture in a city like Lahore. The methodology adopted is the application of Urban Acupuncture (bottom-up approach) principles including accessibility, permeability, pluralism, inclusivity and interdisciplinary innovation. This research concluded the regeneration model for the uplifting of Barkat Market square with innovative solutions to revamp the whole design of the area. The recommendation strategy proposed the design solutions for entry and exit into the market in addition to the parking spaces with inbuilt security and safety for the users.</p> Faiqa Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Ahmed Nadeem, Syed Hassan Amir Jafri Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Reversed Gender Roles and Linguistic Choices: A Transitivity Analysis of Gender Disparities in Ali’s The Stone Woman <p>The present study is a critique of the language used in a literary text i.e., The Stone Woman (2000) written by Tariq Ali, a famous Pakistani-British writer in order to find out gender disparities through transitivity analysis. For the purpose two characters, Nilofer and Selim, the female and male participants of romance scenes are selected. Following a mixed method approach, the study has collected fifty clauses as sample through purposive sampling. The greater number of clauses i.e., thirty clauses used to represent the female while the lesser number i.e., twenty clauses for the male show a biased attitude of the writer. The analysis shows that the female is described through a maximum use of all the four identified types of clauses: fifty-eight percent material, sixty percent mental, sixty-seven percent behavioral and sixty-seven percent verbal. In comparison to this the clauses used to describe the male appear with lesser frequency: forty-two percent material, forty percent mental, and thirty-three percent behavioral and verbal each. Moreover, the allocation of the participants’ roles with power and authority are mostly reserved for the female: fifty-eight percent actor ,sixty percent senser , sixty-seven percent sayer while the male is shown less active through maximum fifty-nine percent goal and sixty seven percent receiver roles. The findings of the study clearly show that Nilofer is more dominant and authoritative in the romance scenes as compared to Selim who is reluctant and acts only when he is encouraged by the female. Hence, the study finds that the traditionally reserved gender roles are reversed in Ali’s The Stone Woman.</p> Behzad Anwar, Asma Iqbal Kayani, Muhammad Ramiz Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Emerging Paradigms of Governance: Analysis of the Changing Governance Landscape in Pakistan <p>This study focuses on the contemporary paradigms of governance and its applicability for public sector, comprising on the evolution of paradigmatic governance and Pakistan’s historical contribution to adopt these governance approaches. As governance has become a popular jargon in governmental affairs and political process. With the development of globalized world and the emergence of new technologies, countries like Pakistan is endeavoring to modernize their institutions and governance mechanism to confront complex challenges. This study utilized qualitative approach by reviewing secondary sources. Our general conclusion draws on theoretical description of governance approaches. Thus, it can be stated that these emerging paradigms are the new doors of governance that provide efficient public service delivery, responsive and transparent bureaucracy and also improve the efficiency in resource management. It is recommended that there is the necessity of applying administrative reforms including new form of institutional structures, collaborative policy networks and contemporary governance paradigms within the state.</p> Sadia Malik, Muqadas Saleem, Dr. Muhammad Mudabbir Malik Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Parents’ Involvement Versus Children’s Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study of Secondary School Level in Dera Ghazi Khan <p>The main objective of the study was to investigate the correlation between academic achievement of secondary-level students’ and parents’ involvement. A simple random sampling technique was used, 420 government girls' secondary school students selected from 10th grade. The academic performance of the students was assessed based on the results of three subject tests, while data on parents' involvement was gathered through a questionnaire. The findings indicated an adequate, noteworthy, and effective correlation between the academic achievement of the children and their parents' involvement. Research indicates that children may struggle academically and fall short of their educational objectives without support in academic pursuits and parental encouragement. In light of these conclusions, the research suggests the implementation of regularly scheduled Parent-Teacher Association meetings throughout the academic year.</p> Samina Naz, Dr. Muhammad Arslan Raheem, Syeda Sabeen Raza Gilani Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Perception of Health Risks and Strategies for Mitigation among Male and Female Users of Cosmetics in the District of Kasur <p>The core purpose of this study was to understand the awareness about possible health risks and usages of cosmetics among males and females in District Kasur. The main objectives of the present research were to explore awareness about possible health risks associated with the use of cosmetics, to identify the reason for risk-taking and using cosmetics (makeup) among cosmetic users and explore the risk mitigation practices among cosmetic users (male/female) in Kasur City. In this study, researchers strongly discourage the use of these harmful cosmetics that always brings some problems to most of the users leading to unsettled economic balance to women as most of them are working all over the day and spending almost half of what they earn on beauty. The data collected through the interview. Data were analyzed thematically and the sample size was (8) participants of females and males aged between 18 to 32 years old. The result of the present study showed that 8 participants out of 12 were unaware of cosmetics health risk and their usages. The researchers highly advise against using dangerous cosmetics because of the imbalance in women's economic stability that they generate in many users, as well as other reoccurring concerns.</p> Fahad Zakir, Dr. Inamulhaq, Humaira Babur Sheikh Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 An Empirical Investigation of Nurses’ Knowledge regarding the Management of Psychiatric Patients in Emergency Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan <p>The Emergency Department is a fast-paced setting where nurses must deal with crucial situations such as psychologically disturbed patients. Therefore, this study has been conducted to investigate the knowledge of nurses to manage psychiatric patients in the emergency unit of a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. A descriptive-analytic design was conducted from January 21, 2023, to March 15 2023 at an emergency unit in Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. The study instrument was designed to meet the objectives of the current study, which consists of two parts: the first part includes the demographical data for nurses; the second part includes the knowledge management Scale 32 items (KMS). The study shows nurses have a good level of knowledge of items related to knowledge about the treatment of psychiatric disorders at the emergency unit as seen among 89.4%. The study concluded that most nurses have a good level of knowledge ' about the treatment of psychiatric disorders at emergency units. Training and counselling sessions of nurses should be conducted to manage the psychiatric patients effectively.</p> Sidra Shumshir Ali, Rubina Mustafa, Shazia Rafique Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Modernization in Pakistani Dramas and its Influence on the Youth: A Case Study of Lahore Youth <p>This study explores the influence of Pakistani dramas on Lahore's youth, specifically university students, recognizing their significant role in shaping cultural perceptions and behaviors. It is essential to understand this impact to assess the broader societal implications of these dramas. Using a sample of 100 university students in Lahore selected through simple random sampling, the study collected data via questionnaire and analyzed it using SPSS. The Social Learning Theory and Cultivation of Media framework were applied to the data analysis. The findings suggest that Pakistani youths, particularly females, are highly receptive to the lifestyles and cultures depicted in modern television dramas, impacting the social and cultural landscape of society. This study underscores the significant influence of Pakistani television dramas on youth, prompting the adoption of cultural and lifestyle elements portrayed in these dramas. Future research could delve into additional dimensions of television dramas to deepen our understanding of their societal impact.</p> Dr. Usman Umer, Dr. Muhammad Waqas Butt, Nayab Sohail Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Mediating Effect of Coping Strategies in the Relationship between Gratitude and Life Satisfaction among Professionals <p>The present study investigated the relationship between gratitude, coping strategies and satisfaction with life, moreover, mediating role of coping strategies was also investigated. For this purpose, a sample of 300 professionals (doctors, bankers, teachers) were recruited from private and government sectors. Convenient sampling was employed to recruit samples, cross-sectional design was used in this research. The Gratitude Questionnaire (McCullough &amp; Emmons, 2002), Coping strategy scale (Grych, Hamby &amp; Banyard, 2013) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons &amp; Griffin, 1985) were used to investigate the study variables. Statistical analysis revealed that gratitude had a positive relationship with coping skills and satisfaction with life, moreover, coping skills had significant positive relationship with satisfaction of life. It was also elucidated that coping strategies were mediating the relationship between gratitude and satisfactions of life. Maintaining a connection between gratitude and coping may propose fresh avenues for studies on gratitude approaches. Results of one study can be calculated in the creation of intervention and solutions based primarily on the usage of coping mechanisms that aim not only to alleviate tension but also to improve satisfaction with life in higher professionals.</p> Uzma Sarwar, Maryam Arfeen, Mahshamin Munawar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Geopolitical Dynamics of Pakistan's Energy Sector: A Comprehensive Analysis <p>This study conducts an in-depth geopolitical analysis of Pakistan's energy sector, focusing on the intricate connections between resource dependency, regional energy dynamics, and security imperatives. Through extensive literature reviews and advanced data analysis, it examines policy frameworks, socio-economic impacts, and future projections. The research reveals the significant influence of these factors on shaping Pakistan's energy policies and its global standing. Drawing from insights in political science and international relations, the study offers strategic recommendations to strengthen Pakistan's energy security. It emphasizes the need for proactive measures to navigate evolving global power dynamics and geopolitical challenges. The recommendations underscore the importance of ensuring sustainable energy access for Pakistan while navigating complexities in the international energy landscape. Overall, this study provides valuable insights for policymakers, stakeholders, and analysts to enhance Pakistan's resilience and strategic positioning in the energy sector amidst changing geopolitical realities.</p> Syed Rizwan Haider Bukhari, Tehsin Ullah Khan, Nasir Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Tue, 02 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Role of Parental Neglect in Shaping Resilience Among Individuals with Substance Use Disorder <p>The present study was conducted to observe the parental neglect and resilience among substance use disorder and their difference with general population. The total number of sample 280, with age range of 19-40 years. The data were collected through purposive sampling from rehabilitation center of district Faisalabad. Demographic sheet were used to get personal information about the participant. Drug abuse screening tests, Parental acceptance rejection questionnaire, Corner Davidson resilience scale Urdu versions were used. Results showed score of substance users on parental neglect and resilience are higher as compared to general population. The result showed that there is positive correlation between parental neglect and substance use disorder. Significant negative correlation among resilience and substance use disorder. By understanding how resilience can act as a protective factor, mental health professionals can design interventions to foster resilience and mitigate the negative effects of prenatal neglect on substance use disorder.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ayesha Ali, Dr. Muhammad Luqman Khan, Dr. Naheed Atta Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Fri, 05 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Impact of Corporate Governance on Working Capital of Cement Companies of Pakistan <p>This research investigates the influence of corporate governance on working capital management within the cement industry of Pakistan. The sample included 13 cement companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange. Data from year 2019 to 2023 is used in this study. This study employs quantitative analysis to examine the relationship between corporate governance variables, such as board size, internal audit team size, CEO duality and external audit quality. Elements of Working Capital Management (WCM) include accounts payable turnover, inventory turnover, and accounts receivable turnover. The results of the study revealed that audit quality and internal audit team size are the key elements of Corporate Governance (CG) affecting receivable turnover period. The result revealed more staffed internal audit team leads to lower receivable turnover in days. While higher external audit quality also leads to lower receivable turnover days. Similarly, internal audit team size is significant in effecting inventory turnover in the cement industry of Pakistan. More staffed internal audit lead in crucial in identifying weakness in the inventory management leading to lower inventory turnover period.</p> Awais Ashraf, Dr. Ahmed Hassan Jamal, Moazzam Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sat, 06 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Herd Investing in Pakistani Stock Market: Evidence from Pakistan’s Stock Market Using Data of More Than Three Decades <p>To contribute to the inconclusive existing literature about presence of herd-investing behavior in Pakistani stock market, this study utilizes non-linear regression approach introduced by Chang et al. (2000) to analyze investors' herding behavior in Pakistani stock investors and whether it varies during extreme market conditions. The study finds a symmetric and significant correlated trading behavior, both during bullish and bearish market conditions, among Pakistani stock investors, though the static herding behavior is absent at the full sample level. In addition, the herding behavior persists not only during the global financial crisis but also during COVID-19 pandemic, albeit more prominently during the former. The analysis of study also reveals a symmetric and significant correlated trading behavior during both lockdown and post-lockdown periods of COVID-19. These findings imply that Pakistani stock investors comprehend herding patterns in crafting efficient and proactive investment strategies to maximize portfolio diversification advantages, particularly during extreme market conditions.</p> Abida Perveen, Faiq Mahmood, Ahsan Riaz Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sun, 07 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Rural Women's Constraints of Socioeconomics and Income-Generating Activities: The Case of Larkana District <p>This study aims to understand the income-generating activities and the challenges faced by women in district Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan. Women, considered a vulnerable group, encounter various challenges in their daily activities, particularly in income generation. Despite this, there is limited understanding of their economic engagement in rural areas. This quantitative, descriptive study utilized a multistage sampling technique to collect data from 384 participants in three sub-districts of Larkana. Data were analyzed using SPSS. The findings indicate a lack of high qualifications among participants, with 40% being illiterate. Over sixty percent reside in Kacha houses, indicative of a weak socio-economic status. Despite this, rural Sindh women exhibit independence in marital decision-making. However, opportunities for livelihood work are limited, with most engaged in home-based embroidery during non-agricultural seasons. Significant portions of their income are allocated to basic necessities, revealing financial strain. To alleviate the challenges faced by rural women, interventions focusing on education, skill development, and economic empowerment are essential. Furthermore, policies promoting equal opportunities and addressing socio-economic disparities are warranted.</p> Inayatullah Magsi, Dr. Nooreen Mujahid Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sun, 07 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 A Sociological Evaluation of Financial Issues of Litigants with Reference to the Impediments in Access to the Justice <p>This study aimed to assess the financial barriers hindering access to justice from a sociological and socio-legal standpoint. Conducted in Karachi, Pakistan, this quantitative, descriptive, and exploratory study surveyed 547 litigants in district courts using purposive sampling. Data were collected via a Likert scale survey and analyzed using SPSS software. The research revealed a significant correlation between financial challenges and access to justice, indicating that financial constraints impede justice accessibility. It also found a noteworthy relationship between access to justice and sources of income, as well as higher court process expenses affecting access. The study linked lawyer fees to other litigation expenses and highlighted a positive correlation between stress levels and access-to-justice costs. Addressing financial barriers and reducing court expenses can enhance access to justice, necessitating policy reforms and support mechanisms to mitigate financial burdens on litigants.</p> Muhammad Kamil Lakho, Kaneez Fatima Mamdani, Rana Saba Sultan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sun, 07 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Second-Round Effects of Energy Inflation in Manufacturing Sector: An Evidence for Pakistan <p>Manufacturing is considered to be the backbone of social and economic development worldwide. The issue of energy inflation has become a major macroeconomic concern for many sectors, including manufacturing. This study examines Pakistan's manufacturing sector specifically to determine how second-round energy inflation affects its operations. Further, the study aims to determine the impact of macroeconomic indicators on manufacturing value-added (MVA) including inflation reverts. In this study, manufacturing value-added is used as a dependent indicator, while energy inflation (EI), core inflation (CI), political instability (PI), real interest rate (RIR), and financial development (FD) are independent indicators for the period 1991 to 2020. This study uses the gap model for capturing the variation or second round in inflation and the autoregressive distributive lagged model for individual long-run_ and short-run impacts on manufacturing value-added growth. Based on the gap model, results show the huge presence of second-round effects of energy inflation in Pakistan. ARDL results show that energy inflation, core inflation, financial development, and political instability all affect manufacturing value-added significantly excluding real interest rates. This research also helps the Pak government to promote energy efficiency and adoption of energy-saving technologies in the manufacturing sector. Companies can reduce their dependency on fuel and mitigate the impact of energy price fluctuations. This study helps to stabilize manufacturing costs and improve competitiveness, ultimately contributing to the growth of manufacturing value-added in Pakistan.</p> Chanda Arshad, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Ilyas Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Trade with Central Asian Republics: Banking Sector Policy Option for Pakistan <p>The study endeavors to explore policies and procedures related to banking which are hindering Pakistan’s trade with Central Asia (CA) and to find solution for these problems. The methodology used has conducted secondary analysis of relevant literature, qualitative data collection in the form of qualitative interviews and content analysis of policy documents. The study found that besides trade complementarity there is huge trade potential between the economies of CA and Pakistan. It also found out that with most CA countries this potential is being missed by Pakistan. Reason for this loss is gaps in banking policy of Pakistan. Study recommends a plan be implemented by SBP; that solves the LC opening and implementation problems being faced by traders of Pakistan, for all the CA countries. It also recommends private banks should be incentivized by the SBP to open and operate branches in CA countries.</p> Dr. Raja Adnan Razzaq, Muhammad Haroon Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Understanding Pakistan’s Foreign Policy in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities <p>Understanding Pakistan’s foreign policy is a herculean task because Pakistan has a diverse kind of country in its geostrategic and geoeconomic circumstances. This chapter will explain the theoretical and operational understanding of Pakistan’s foreign policy framework in the contemporary world. Pakistan’s geostrategic conditions are challenging and lucrative at the same time. Three nuclear powers surround it: China, India, and Russia. The fourth nuclear power is Pakistan, which is in the region. Iran, the fifth nuclear power, is in the making. Therefore, Pakistan is balancing its relations with Iran and Saudi Arabia, as an extremely Shia country and as a Sunni country, respectively. China is a communist, and the US is a democratic country, but Pakistan’s foreign policy is based on mutual interests and peaceful co-existence. The qualitative method would mainly be used to test this research’s hypothesis based on Pakistan’s ability to sustain itself in the comity of a nation as a soft power and peaceful country instead of a warmonger in the region. The consolidation in the form of recommendations will also be included at the end.</p> Mahnoor Mansoor, Iram Khalid Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Wed, 10 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Optimizing Water Resource Governance for Sustainable Agricultural and Hydroelectric Development in Pakistan: An In-Depth Examination and Policy Prescriptions <p>This paper scrutinizes Pakistan's acute water scarcity issues driven by population growth, diminishing supply, and recurrent droughts exacerbated by meteorological phenomena like La Nina. Regions such as Baluchistan and Sindh face severe water stress, jeopardizing livelihoods and potentially precipitating internal displacement, necessitating immediate and decisive governmental action. The absence of a coherent national water policy further complicates challenges in water storage, irrigation, and inter-provincial relations, potentially straining political dynamics. Through a comprehensive evaluation of Pakistan's water resources, this study identifies critical imperatives requiring urgent attention from policymakers. Proposed recommendations advocate for the development and implementation of a robust national water policy, strategic investments in modernized storage and irrigation infrastructure, promotion of water conservation initiatives, fostering inter-provincial collaboration, and the pursuit of cutting-edge sustainable water technologies. The successful execution of these measures would not only optimize water resource management but also underscore the government's commitment to ensuring national stability and prosperity amidst challenging environmental conditions.</p> Syed Rizwan Haider Bukhari, Prof Dr. Amir Ullah Khan, Dr. Shabana Noreen Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sat, 13 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Empowering Communities for Safer Roads: A Study of Road Safety Campaigns in Punjab <p>Every year, millions of lives are lost or affected by road accidents, prompting governments, NGOs, and other stakeholders to launch road safety campaigns aimed at raising awareness, educating road users, and promoting safer behaviors. In this context present research article aims to provide a detailed analysis of the impact of road safety campaigns on road users. Therefore, present study used a questionnaire as a data collection tool, random sampling, and a descriptive research design. This study offered important insights on the efficiency of road safety campaigns in encouraging safer behaviors among drivers. On the bases of the findings of the study, using behavioral insights, implementing creative communication techniques, improving stakeholder engagement, and including road safety education into curriculum are a few possible recommendations. Moreover, this research attempted to make a significant and long-lasting contribution to the field of road safety by a thorough analysis of the effects of road safety initiatives on road users.</p> Syed Imran Ahmad Shah, Dr. Waleed Rasool, Shah Asad Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sun, 14 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Implications of Expanding China-US Political and Strategic Influence in the Asia Pacific <p>This study explore the key elements shaping China-US expanding political and strategic influence in the Asia Pacific region and to understand the role and contributions of China in Asia Pacific. It is in the human nature and most anticipated human instinct to desire for accumulating, retaining and demonstrating power. Similar is the history of the nations and empires and now the states that there exists an environment of competition and struggle for power in the international arena. It is in the nature of the superpowers to resist any power that challenges its might. US and China, the two mighty major powers are engaged in a similar balance of power. Most of the theatre of their competition has been the Asia Pacific, where China enjoys significant influence and demonstrates considerable power. In order to understand the interests of China and US in the Asia Pacific and the impact of the given interests on the other countries as well as on the institutions, the given research is designed in a descriptive and explorative manner focusing specially on the deductive method of reasoning. The assessment of the United States long-term strategic rivalry and competition with China involves tactics of making alliances with its partners alongside their resources, strength, and capabilities to counter the rise of China. The AUKUS, a trilateral security pact between Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, provides nuclear-powered submarines to Australia and collaboration in multiple military capabilities which includes quantum technologies, information sharing, artificial intelligence, innovation electric warfare domain, and hypersonic and counter hypersonic.</p> Dr. Mariam Tahir Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Wed, 17 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Tailoring Shadow Education: Leveraging ChatGPT to Transform Private Tutoring Landscape to Optimized Performance of Students <p>The present research was intended to investigate the ChatGPT role as a private tutor in the context of its significance and effect on students' satisfaction and academic performance. The advent of technological innovations like ChatGPT and AI tools has changed the panorama of globally expanding private tutoring through the integration of AI tools. A quantitative research approach along with a descriptive research method was designed to accomplish the present research. A total of 151 university students were sample of research, selected through a simple random sampling technique. Results displayed that students were agreed about ChatGPT as a private tutor in the context of effectiveness, active engagement, personalized guidance, positive interaction, constructive feedback, integration, recommendations, and user interface. ChatGPT as a private tutor has significant effect on students' satisfaction with positive relationship. Students may be provided training in the use of AI tools like ChatGPT for private tutoring. Program developers of AI may address potential biases, challenges and misuse of AI applications in education.</p> Dr. Samra Afzal, Dr. Shazia Zamir, Dr. Muhammad Asghar Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Moderating Effect of Greenwashing between Green Supply Chain Management Practices and Green Brand Association: A Study of Pakistani Fashion Brand applying the NRBV <p>This study examined how environmental greenwashing moderates the link between "green supply chain management" (GSCM) practices and green brand association. Using the natural resource-based (NRBV), this research creates a model to better understand GSCMP and GBA fashion brand in Pakistan. This study included fashion brand customers, selected using nonprobability purposive sampling. The cross-sectional study included 15 fashion brand mall customers from six of Pakistan's largest cities: Bahawalpur, Islamabad, Multan, Faisalabad, Karachi, and Lahore. The study used 446 responses. Statistics were done using SPSS and "SmartPLS partial least square, structural equation modelling" (PLS-SEM). A structural model was developed to test hypotheses. The proposed GSCMPs correlated to GBA. GW's negative moderation affects between GBP and GBA significantly. GBD and GBA are negatively moderated by GW. Managers and policymakers should heed current studies to achieve green brand association. First empirical study to use NRBV framework with GW as a moderator.</p> Saif Ur Rehman, Muhammad Awais, Sulaman Hafeez Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Fri, 19 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Navigating the Interplay of Assertiveness and Job Satisfaction in Teaching at Universities <p>The main focus of the current study was to examine the relationship between assertiveness and job satisfaction among teachers in public sector universities. Assertiveness, an important part of effective communication, was hypothesized to positively impact job satisfaction, especially in academia, where the communication patterns are complex. A descriptive correlational research design was employed by utilizing a Assertiveness Scale (RAS) and the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) to 219 teachers randomly selected from universities in Punjab, Pakistan. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, ANOVA, Z scores, and regression analyses. The research findings indicated a highly significant positive association between assertiveness and job satisfaction. Since, instructors who possess a greater level of assertiveness have a better degree of work satisfaction at work. Universities should organize training programs to enhance assertiveness, conflict resolution techniques, and communication strategies among teachers to promote their overall satisfaction at the workplace.</p> Dr. Syeda Tehmina Naz Bukhari, Dr. Samina Akhtar, Dr. Sabiha Iqbal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sun, 21 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Young Women’s Changing Attitudes towards Privacy in Blogging with Age and Experience in Pakistan <p>The purpose of this study was to find out the changing perception of privacy in blog writing among young women. The growth in social media and the number of web pages, and blogs evolved from online diaries and journals in the mid-90s. People preferably started using blogs to publish regular updates about their personal lives, thoughts, and social commentary. The researcher explored the perception of women on privacy through a questionnaire by using a descriptive research design. The data was collected from 171 young women and results revealed that women in the age range 27-31 show more concern about privacy and women with 7 years and more blog writing experience are more concerned about privacy in blog writing. It concluded that women with more age and more experience in blog writing are aware of privacy concerns as compared to younger ones. Further studies can focus on parameters to manage privacy concerns in blog writing</p> Komal Masood, Shahyan Qamar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sun, 21 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Post 9/11 Pakistan China Counter Terrorism Engagements: Challenges and Prospects <p>The 9/11 attacks exposed unique elements that left an enormous effect on Pakistan. Despite having an excellent track record historically, Sino-Pak ties overwhelmingly dominated by counter terrorism phenomenon. Pakistan was under attack from the virulent and deadly wave of terrorism. Similarly, China's Western border, which separates the turbulent region from the province of Xinjiang, was a major source of concern for the country. Furthermore, Beijing was concerned about the safety of its assets across a number of nations, particularly in Pakistan. Due to these consequences, Pakistan and China started working together to combat terrorism. The current study aims to evaluate Pakistan China counter terrorism partnership includes with challenges and future prospects. The study adopted a qualitative methodology and used primary and secondary sources of information. The findings reveal that Pak-China efficient counter terrorism engagements have helped to reduce the terrorist activities, and still hold potential to secure geopolitical, economic and security benefits.</p> Dr. Muhammad Ahmad, Dr. Rehana Saeed Hashmi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sun, 21 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Increasing Political Intolerance in Pakistan and Charter of Democracy: An Analysis <p>This article examines escalating political intolerance in Pakistan and advocate for the revival of the Charter of Democracy to address contemporary challenges facing the nation's democratic institutions. The paper delves into the historical context of political intolerance in Pakistan, highlighting factors such as martial law, political party behavior, and economic instability. It emphasizes the significance of the CoD, initially signed in 2006, as a framework for political cooperation and stability. Utilizing both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research explores the socio-political and economic factors contributing to political intolerance in Pakistan. Political tolerance emerges as essential for Pakistan's democratization process, fostering a participatory society that respects the interests of all segments. Conversely, political intolerance obstructs participatory behaviors and hinders true democracy. Reviving the CoD is proposed as solution to mitigate political intolerance and promote democracy. Encouraging political unity and stability will help Pakistan move closer to achieving real democracy.</p> Naila Younas, Muhammad Yousaf Iftikhar, Dr. Mian Muhammad Azhar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sat, 27 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Analysis of the US Unilateral Trade Policy for the Developing Countries: Impact on Trade Creation <p>This study investigates the effects of the US unilateral trade policy on exports from beneficiary developing countries (BDCs) to the US market. It utilizes the Gravity model framework of international trade, employing the core gravity equation introduced by Tinbergen (1962) and Poyhonen (1963), and augments it with Batra's (2006) framework to account for other determinants of trade. The analysis focuses on factors such as Generalized Scheme of Preferences (GSP) imports, logistic performance index (LPI), Human Development Index (HDI), Concentration index, Global Innovation Index (GII), and dummy variables representing the African Growth &amp; Opportunity Act (AGOA), Least Developing Countries (LDC), and landlocked countries. Surprisingly, the study finds that GDP has a negative impact, while distance has a positive impact on exports, contrary to the assumptions of the gravity model. The results also show a positive effect of GSP imports, but a significant negative impact of the AGOA variable on BDC exports. Moreover, the study highlights the positive influences of LPI and HDI on BDC exports. However, the Global Innovation Index and Concentration Index do not show significant effects on BDC exports. Therefore, the study suggests that BDCs should focus on enhancing human development and infrastructure to exploit export potential, as highlighted by the study's findings.</p> Arbab M. Murad, Dr. Jameel Ahmed, Dr. Kaneez Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sat, 27 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Artificial Intelligence and Future HRM Practices: A Case of Pakistan Business Sector <p>Artificial intelligence is the fastest growing field in the digital technology industry. Every industry is trying its best to shift its processes to AI based machines. Among these industries the HRM is one of which is adopting these. This study aims to examine the impact of the artificial intelligence on the HRMR practices of the business sector of the Pakistan. A quantitative approach was adopted to analyze the study. The data was gathered from the 300 business managers of the Pakistan two cities Karachi and Lahore by purposive sampling. Data was gathered from a closed ended questioner which was designed on Google forms. The gathered data was analyzed using a technique based on the Partial Least Square with the help of the software named as SmartPLS. From the results of this study, it was found that there are four major HRM practices exist in the business sector of Pakistan named as recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation and benefits. Results reveals that these all the majors HRM practices are highly impact by the artificial intelligence technology in the upcoming future. This is also recommended to the business sector of the Pakistan to adopt AI based application more and more in their operations especially in HRM.</p> Bilal Ahmed, Muhammad Sufyan Ramish, Mutasam Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sun, 28 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Exploring the Impact of Four-Years BS Education Program on Teacher Preparedness and Classroom Performance: A Case Study of Narowal District <p>The purpose of this research was to assess the efficacy of a four-year Bs Education. program in district Narowal through the experiences and judgments of teacher educators, teachers, and alumni. The rapid change in the global education scenario has also effected Pakistani system of higher education during recent years. The Higher Education Commission transformed the 2-year graduation programs to 4-years in every subject area/discipline including the 4-year BS education program. The change was made to help Pakistani students that they may compete globally. The research used mix-method methodology to conduct this research. The convenience sample of three government universities and two private colleges, comprising public and private ones, was taken. The final semester students and teachers were surveyed of BS education program. 54 teachers and 273 students were included for conducting semi-structured interviews. The analysis was conducted through SPSS version 23. The descriptive data indicated that participants were satisfied overall with teaching strategies on the course; relevance of the course; teachers’ knowledge; and timeliness of feedback but were concerned with resources/facilities. The research study recommends that more resources are required for English proficiency, IT skills, and pedagogical training.</p> Dr. Asad Ali Manzoor, Dr. Navid Tufail, Fakhar-Ul-Zaman Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Tue, 30 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Rethinking Regional Hegemonic Order: Nexus of BRI and SCO in Central Asian Region <p>The study traces the patterns of changing paradigm of the geopolitical nature of the region. Central Asia historically remained pivotal in hegemonic battles of great powers and now china’s enhanced regional involvement through BRI and SCO is changing traditional regional paradigm. Historical and descriptive methodology with comparative analysis of qualitative data obtained from secondary sources is used to analyze geopolitical developments for predictions. Decade long journey of BRI has helped Asian GDP substantial growth as a sign of economic development and SCO nexus of Central Asian states under Chinese patronage has shown enhanced cooperation with accelerated connectivity. Geopolitical environment is tilted in favor of Chinese regional hegemony particularly in central Asian region only if china is able to maintain regional security. Global and regional stakeholders ranging from states, business, IGOs, and NGOs should reap the benefits of BRI materialization by venturing business deals with ongoing projects.</p> Husni Mubarak, Shakil Akhtar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sat, 04 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Objectivist Theory of Art: A Critical Study <p>The objective of this paper is to understand the difference between Expressionist Theory and Objectivist Theory of Art and critically evaluate the importance of both of them. There have been many theories in Art. The Expressionist Theory can be considered as the most popular one. Croce and Collingwood are two major representatives of this theory. According to this theory, Art is basically the self-expression of the artist shared by others. In 20th Century Karl R. Popper raised some serious objections against the Expressionist Theory and presented his own theory of Art called the Objectivist Theory. The study is fundamentally theoretical and qualitative in nature and the original writings of Collingwood, Kant and Popper are used. Finally, it has been concluded that this theory is outstanding from the point of view of an artist but has certain limitations, if we analyze it from the point of view of a philosopher and a metaphysician.</p> Dr. Muhammad Jawwad Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sat, 04 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Motives for Smartphone Use as Predictors of Absent Presence Situations among University Students in Pakistan <p>The current study contributes to the notions of absent presence and mere presence hypothesis and a theoretical framework is proposed. The objectives are to explore the effects of the independent variables of political, business, educational, religious, communication, companionship, social interaction, passing time, escapist, relaxation, and entertainment motives for smartphone usage on the dependent variable of perceived absent presence situations among youth.. By using quota sampling technique university students are selected from the four provinces of Pakistan (N=756) and data is collected through online survey. The independent variables explain the variance of 45.5 percent in the dependent variable of absent presence situations which is quite respectable. The companionship and passing time motives make unique contributions to absence presence situations. The students should check their time for smartphone use and pay attention to their studies which is their prime objective. It is also suggested to replicate the model in different cultural settings.</p> Dr. Robina Saeed, Dr. Mudassar Hussain, Muntaha Sami Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sun, 05 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Mediating Effect of Green Core Competence in the Relationship between Green HRM practices and Green Corporate Image among the Employees <p>The current study tends to highlight the impact of green practices on employees’ performance, and, focuses on whether or not we could enhance employees’ performance through the use of green practices. Lot of work has been done in developed countries on sustainability, environmental management and going green as corporate social responsibility; however, developing countries like Pakistan are far behind in academic as well as managerial contribution on these concepts. For some academicians and managers, these concepts are rather new, and, even some of them are unaware of green management and sustainability. Analysis was conducted using data from a sample of 315 employees working in oil refineries and fertilizer plants in Southern Punjab. Data was collected through a questionnaire based on adopted scales. The most recent version of compliance with established Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) is can also be used to ascertain data extracted, and finalized by doing questionnaire coding as per the described scale. Additionally, data analyzed in terms of complete and accurate descriptive statistics is done by utilizing SPSS. For the purpose of verification of the study's outcomes, Multi-Collinearity, KMO and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity, Direct &amp; Indirect Effects on Dependent Variable. Hence, Green practices i.e Green recruitment &amp; selection (GRS), Green orientation (GO) and Green training (GRT) were found significant through direct relation with Green corporate image (GCI). Similarly, above mentioned green practices were also found significant through mediated relationship of green core competence GCC on green corporate image GCI. Also, current study recommended that a conceptual model can be made better by adding or removing a few constructs or it may also be applicable to some other provinces and industries.</p> Muhammad Alamgir, Mehak Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sun, 05 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Attachment as a Key in the Development of Personality: A Psychoanalytical Interpretation of Emma Donoghue’s Room <p>The article explores the role of attachment patterns in the development of a child’s personality in Emma Donoghue’s novel Room (2010). The main objective is to observe the personality of a restrained mother, Ma, and her child, Jack, who was born in a confinement, set by a molester, Old Nick. The story revolves around the five years old Jack who became the rescuer of Ma. John Bowlby’s Attachment Theory and Jacques Lacan’s concept of the development of human consciousness are used to examine the evolution of Jack’s personality, keeping in view the pattern of his attachment with Ma. Hence, the novel narrates the depths of maternal love and the persistency of the human spirit. The study concludes on demonstrating the significant role played by the protagonist’s attachment to his mother to shape his personality and let him live a normal life in the outside world.</p> Zuha Najeeb, Saima Bashir, Fahad Saleem Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 An Investigation of the Impact of Parental Media Mediation on Social Media Addiction and Perceived Child Rearing Practices among Adolescents <p>This study aimed to explore the influence of parental media mediation on social media addiction and perceived child-rearing practices among adolescents in Pakistan. With the pervasive use of social media among adolescents, understanding the role of parental mediation becomes crucial in mitigating potential negative effects. This study addresses this gap by investigating the impact of parental mediation on social media addiction and its implications for child-rearing practices. Utilizing a quantitative correlational approach, data were gathered from 253 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years using convenient sampling. Questionnaires assessing parental media mediation, social media addiction, and perceived child-rearing practices were employed. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS. Positive associations were found between perceived parental mediation and problematic social media use, particularly in instances of seeking self-improvement or support. Notably, children's subjective well-being was not determined by smartphone usage, potentially due to parental mediation. This research underscores the importance of parental mediation in addressing social media addiction among adolescents. Future studies should explore the alignment between adolescents' perceptions of parental mediation and parents' actual behaviors.</p> Farheen Shahid, Aqsa Abdul Khaliq, Novera Obaid Qazi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Tue, 07 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Assessing the Mediating Influence of Work Stressors on the Linkage between Narcissism and Counterproductive Work Behavior <p>The aim of the current research is to analyze the set of conditions under which narcissism highly affects counterproductive work behavior. Specifically, the study analyzes the role of work stressors to establish the strong relationship between narcissism and counterproductive work behavior. Using sample data from administrative staff of public and private sector universities, the study found support that narcissism has a significant impact on counterproductive work behavior directly and in the presence of work stressors. It is also evident that the work stressors partially mediate the relationship between narcissism and counterproductive work behavior. Counterproductive work behavior is a most painful situation for today’s workplace, and the results of this study helps managers in understanding employees’ behavior in the presence of work stressors. On the basis of the findings, managers will be able to craft administrative policies to avoid work stressors that induce negative emotions and consequently counterproductive work behavior.</p> Rabia Asif, Sobia Hassan, Syeda Hania Batool Naqvi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Wed, 08 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Improving Employee In-Role and Extra Role Performance with Ethical Leadership: As Meditating Role of Employee Creativity <p>The main purpose of this study looks at how ethical leadership, employee creativity, emotional intelligence and their effects on in-role and extra role work performance in company settings. It aims to offer understanding about how ethical leadership techniques can affect employee productivity and imagination. It also looks at the impact of emotional intelligence on this process. The study uses a design that looks at different groups, and it gathers information using numbers. We pick 240 people from different jobs in Pakistan. We use a method called stratified random sampling to do this. Surveys are used to collect information about ethical leadership, doing your job and more than expected work. They also look at employee ideas and understanding feelings in a better way. The data analyzed using SPSS. The research shows that ethical leadership greatly affects how well people do their jobs and go beyond them. Team creativity helps a lot with the relation between good leadership and how well they do. Also, emotional smartness changes how ethical leadership affects employee's creativity. Higher levels of this factor make the relation even stronger. This study has some limits. They are using a design that only looks at one point in time, which makes it hard to show cause and effect. Long-term studies can help future research. The study looks closely at one specific culture. We need to think about whether its results can be applied to other cultures too. The study gives helpful tips for companies to grow good leaders, promote employee ideas and build feelings smartness in the office. Starting training programs, giving feedback and encouraging ethical leadership at all levels of a company can improve how employees perform.</p> Muhammad Zulqarnain, Dr. Hina Samdani, Muhammad Fahad Rafeeq Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Thu, 09 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Assessing the Role of Low Body Image as a Risk Factor for developing Addictive Behavior towards Exercise among Regular Exercising Women of Higher Socioeconomic Status <p>This study delved into the complex relationship between body image and obligatory exercise in physically active women. Data collection was carried out by recruiting 150 female gym-goers from Lahore, aged 19-45. Demographic questions, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (SV), Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire and Body image related 10 items were adopted from 3 different body image scales were used to calculate demographic characteristics of person, her last week physical activity, their exercise behavior and body image score respectively. Findings of the study revealed that those physically active women who showed higher scores in obligatory exercise exhibited more dissatisfaction with their body image. However, the study further unearthed a surprising trend towards the active women with a high prevalence of feeling obligated to exercise. This suggested that for many, exercise goes beyond mere health benefits, becoming intertwined with body image concerns and potentially even a sense of compulsion.</p> Amna Ehsan, Dr. Asif Ali, Muhammad Afaq Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Thu, 09 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Alienated Academia: Exploring the Lives of Visiting Faculty in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa through Karl Marx’s Theory of Alienation <p>This study investigates the living experience of visiting faculty in higher education institutions, i.e., postgraduate colleges and universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Visiting faculty are sometimes called ‘permanent visiting teachers’; they face a lot of hardships and challenges in their journey to achieve the milestones of acknowledgment and stability. We examine the role of visiting teachers and the challenging conditions of the academic job market by conducting an extensive analysis of existing scholarly works. We interviewed forty visiting faculty members, ensuring their confidentiality per their wishes. Our interview guide emphasised themes like employment insecurity, psychological distress, lack of support, and intellectual alienation, following Marx’s Theory of Alienation. The study findings are that visiting teachers lack support from their respective departments, are denied research supervision, are given fewer opportunities to utilise the institution’s resources, are delayed, and are underpaid. Such difficulties cause the visiting teachers to experience psychological stress; this is consistent with Karl Marx’s thesis of alienation, as they feel cut off from the institutions, their coworkers, and themselves. Higher education institutions should implement changes such as fair recognition, prompt payment, more excellent representation, and a calm, harmonious, and expanding environment for visiting teachers. Through provoking a critical conversation, this study hopes to promote a more inclusive academic environment that recognises the priceless contributions of visiting faculty members while pursuing an equitable and prosperous educational system.</p> Habib Ullah Nawab, Syed Owais Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sat, 11 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Sartrian Existentialist Analysis of the Selected Characters of the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales <p>The present study aims to find out the existential elements in the Selected Characters of The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales by Chaucer. Further, the study analyzes the existential themes of freedom, choices, and bad faith as presented by the existential philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. The Selected characters are Friar, The Summoner, The Wife of Bath, and The Knight. Chaucer’s The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales though written in the fourteenth century, has universal appeal. The themes, dilemmas, and conflicts presented through the fourteenth-century characters are for all ages. These characters have traces of being existential characters. Existentialism as a theory or philosophy emphasizes the importance of freedom and choices made by man. Chaucer's character which comprises of different classes, professions, and gender assert their sense of freedom in many ways and hence falls either into the category of being-in-itself or being-for-itself. Existentialism is used as a methodological framework for the textual analysis of the Prologue.</p> Ghania Khan, Ghulam Yaseen Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Sat, 11 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Power of Ideas: Diplomatic Think Tanks' Contribution in Shaping Pakistan's Foreign Policy" <p>This research paper investigates the essential role of diplomatic think tanks in shaping Pakistan's foreign policy. Think tanks are non-profit and non-partisan research organizations that perform extensive research regarding issues such as social policy, political strategy, foreign affairs, economy, defense, technology and culture etc. The primary objective of this study is to assess the degree, scope and level of influence exerted by various diplomatic think tanks on the policy makers involved in formulating foreign policy of Pakistan. It examines in details the evolution of these entities, contextual factors influencing their effectiveness, and various strategies to enhance their impact. Over recent decades, Pakistani diplomatic think tanks have proliferated, offering timely analyses yet facing limitations in directly influencing policy outcomes. The study utilizes case studies of Pakistani diplomatic think tanks, comparative analysis with global counterparts, and secondary literature review, employing elitist, statist, pluralist, and institutional approaches. Diplomatic think tanks in Pakistan affect foreign policy-making by generating new ideas, providing expertise, facilitating debates, educating citizens, and contributing to conflict resolution. To bolster effectiveness, these think tanks should prioritize financial sustainability, forge partnerships, increase transparency, and engage a broader array of stakeholders in the policy process.</p> Qaisar Farooq, Maseeh Ullah, Waqar Fazal Mahar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 13 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Identity Politics in Pakistan: Case Study of Saraiki Movement <p>Ethnic identity politics in Pakistan is a complex phenomenon deeply rooted in the multi-ethnic fabric of society. This study explores the emergence, nature, and implications of ethnic movements, focusing on the Saraiki movement within the broader context of identity politics. The research objectives include understanding the historical and socio-economic underpinnings of ethnic conflicts, analyzing the dynamics of the Saraiki movement, and proposing recommendations for addressing ethnic grievances. The methodology involves a qualitative analysis of historical events and socio-economic data to elucidate the causes and consequences of identity politics in Pakistan. Results indicate that the Saraiki movement, stemming from ethno-lingual identity and socio-economic grievances, poses challenges to national integration. Despite promises by mainstream political parties, marginalized ethnic groups like the Saraiki face continued neglect and exploitation. The discussion emphasizes the need for inclusive governance, socio-economic development, and constitutional reforms to address ethnic grievances and prevent further conflict</p> Maryum Hira, Dr. Khadeeja Imran, Asyea Naseem Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 13 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Delphi Based Consensus by developing Relapse Prevention for Bipolar Disorder <p>This study aims to investigate the gaps in clinical practices followed by the experts to make a relapse prevention plan that is culturally suitable for the people living in the area of Islamabad/ Rawalpindi in Pakistan. The significance is to reduce the relapse of bipolar disorder and improve the quality of life for people. The modified Delphi method was applied through three rounds: (1) Data was collected through both academic and nonacademic references (2) Themes were compiled on the basis of the findings of the first phase and distributed to the experts, which consisted of psychiatrists, psychologists, caregivers, and patient in recovery and (3) Modifying or replacing items after the feedback of the experts and concluding the consensus according to the guidelines. The total number of participants was N=24. It also revealed a large agreement among the expert group on the investigated areas of gaps in clinical practices. Consensus was ultimately reached for 8 items of the Delphi survey (80 %). A relapse prevention plan is developed that is more culturally appropriate and will help to manage this disorder more effectively. It is therefore recommended to investigate this study further by using more experts from different cities and including policymakers to determine if these consensuses are applicable in clinical settings and for a larger population. In the future, it can also be studied using longitudinal or intervention-based to investigate the plan more quantitatively.</p> Aaminah Mumtaz, Sana Mukhtar, Ghulam Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Mon, 13 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Influence of Parenting Styles on Adolescent Stress Management: Exploring the Mediating Role of Sleep Quality and the Moderating Effect of Digital Media Use <p>This study examines how parenting styles influence adolescent stress management, focusing on sleep quality as a mediator and digital media use as a moderator. Adolescence, a critical developmental stage, is marked by increased vulnerability to stress. Parenting styles impact emotional regulation and behavior management, with sleep quality playing a crucial role in well-being. Digital media use can negatively affect sleep, complicating stress management. A cross-sectional quantitative study involving 300 adolescents (aged 12-18) and their parents used validated scales to measure parenting styles, sleep quality, digital media use, and stress management. Statistical analyses revealed that authoritative parenting positively influenced stress management, while authoritarian and permissive styles had negative effects. Sleep quality mediated the relationship between parenting styles and stress management, and high digital media use weakened the positive effects of authoritative parenting. Recommendations include promoting authoritative parenting, improving sleep quality, and managing digital media use.</p> Zara Hayat, Prof. Dr. Masood Nadeem, Aqsa Abdul Khaliq Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Tue, 14 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 A Planning Study on the Spatial Configuration of Buss Rapid Transit Stations-Focused on Sustainable Mobility <p>Mass transit systems are pivotal for fostering sustainable transportation and tackling urban mobility challenges. However, their efficacy hinges significantly on spatial characteristics, accessibility, and integration with the built environment. This study offers a blueprint for future Bus rapid transit station designs, aiming to boost ridership and broaden catchment areas to optimize mass transit planning within their surrounding context. Achieving this entails an exploration of human travel behaviors and their interplay with the built environment. To address these challenges, space syntax was utilized as a spatial analysis tool for mass transit system of Rawalpindi, Pakistan, considering its surrounding context. The study's outcomes are based on spatial comparative analysis and gate count analysis, assessing how accessibility impacts user flow to specific stations. The findings underscore the negative linear correlation between ridership and integration, with stations demonstrating higher integration experiencing lower ridership and vice versa. This underscores the significance of spatial analysis in optimizing mass transit networks, mitigating environmental impacts, and enhancing urban livability. Planners and policymakers can leverage these insights to tailor station designs, improving accessibility and flow. Additionally, integrating other transit modes can expand catchment areas, aligning with research emphasizing integration's importance.</p> Abdullah Ahmad, Ubaid Ullah, Malik Fazal Ammar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Tue, 14 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Stimulation-Based Comparative Analysis of Single-Glazed and Double-Glazed Windows in Residential Unit, Lahore Pakistan <p>The objective of the study is to calculate the thermal response of different types of glazing windows used in buildings to achieve a sustainable environment. However, buildings experience a significant amount of heat gain or loss through and this will affect the thermal comfort of the building’s occupants. One of the essential parts of the window is the glazing. Selecting a window glazing is complicated when energy saving and day lighting aspects of a building are considered concurrently. The study involves the estimation of changes in the numerical values regarding the heating and cooling load of a residential unit in the case of replacing glazing from a double-glazed with a single-glazed window. A model of a single-story residential structure prototype has been taken as a case study in the climate of Lahore. The calculation has been compared with values of direct solar gains, heat gains, and losses throughout the year. A quantitative research-based approach has been used. Overall, the results indicate that during summers the Double-glazed window units have 37% less heat gain and during winters 36% less heat loss as compared to Single-glazed window units. Thus, double-glazed windows are more effective in terms of energy efficiency in comparison to single-glazed windows.</p> Ar. Maryam Jamil, Dr. Malik Usman Awan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Thu, 16 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Folk Tales, Sufism and Spiritualism in Balochistan: A Case Study of Mast Tawakali <p>Folklore and its literature are the representatives of a nation’s culture and civilization. This research article is an effort to understand Sufism and its development in Balochistan with special reference to the great Sufi poet Mast Tawkali, focusing on the folk tales of Mast Tawkali and Sammo. The land of Balochistan is full of unknown Sufis who have never gotten the attention of academia and researchers. Mast Tawakali had special attributes and character that transformed him into a Sufi, and the poems of Mast are still part of the Balochi literature, which was learned by the people of his time and transformed from generation to generation. Now these poems are also available in written form, from which the folk tale of Mast Tawakali and Sammo is shaped and presented. This article provides a new insight into the Sufi poet Mast Tawakali by presenting the folk tale in its original form with reference to the poems of Mast Tawakli. The methodological approach in this research study involves qualitative research techniques and the formal analysis of historical approaches. This article concludes that the folk tale of Mast Tawakali is a presentation of the Baloch society, which was based on traditional society, but love was also one of the factors in the society that cannot be ignored.</p> Zil-e Huma Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Thu, 16 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Epigraphic Scheme of the Bestowed Mughal Mosque of Maryam Zamani at Lahore <p>The objective of the research is to explore the motive behind building this Mosque through its calligraphic inscriptions that either it was an act of reverence and bestowment or an endowment project, to serve public faith, by the royal patron. Epigraphic schemes of Mughal Mosques reflect the thought behind the construction of their Mosques, such is the case of Maryam Zamani Mosque of 1614 at Lahore built during the reign of Jahangir in the name of his mother Maryam Zamani. This Panchmukhī Masjid is profusely decorated with non-figurative motifs in fresco among which calligraphic scripts Nast’alīq, Thuluth and Ṭughrā compositions have their own significance. Most of the scholarship related to Maryam Zamani Mosque is limited to descriptive information related to its locality and plan of the Mosque. <br>The research deploys Feldman’s art historical research method by qualitatively analyzing the collected data from on-site visits, photography, study of the inscriptions and related scholarly data. The novel aspect of studying its epigraphic scheme, comprised of Quranic and poetic inscriptions, to explore its construction as a bestowment Imperial project is of prodigious significance which will add valuable knowledge to the existing sparse information on Mughal calligraphy at Lahore. This research also conserves the faded vanishing epigraphy which can be used for restoring the calligraphic specimens.</p> Prof. Dr. Masooma Abbas, Syeda Roohi Jamal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Fri, 17 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Integration of RS and GIS for Tracing the Rural Settlement Pattern and Household Characteristics Analysis of Mirokhan Town, District Kamber Shahdadkot, Sindh <p>The study's goal is to identify the settlement pattern, which reflect the socioeconomic features of the rural area. Mirokhan is one of the oldest tehsils Located in Sindh province's District Kamber Shahdadkot, The changes in the rural settlement pattern are a result of various social issues that are linked to the changes in this settlement. The research was on a survey based, a transect walk, and direct observation across the entire study region in several Muhallas. The Survey was done from January to March of 2024, 103 households were covered through questionnaire. GIS and RS used to observe settlement pattern. The primary causes of the changing environment are the reduced number of joint families, the availability of services, and the migration rate relative to neighboring rural parts of the city due to differences in income sources. The three distinct types of settlement patterns, dispersed, linear, and nucleated observed in study area. In the research area, the majority of the population resides in the nucleated pattern. While the state of the housing is moderate, the water quality is really bad. According to the research, the household's condition is 53.21% meaning that the study area's housing situation is moderate. Local government should monitor and plan the development of infrasturcture like roads, water supply system and sewage lines in rural culture in study area.</p> Naila Parveen Abbasi, Quratulain Anmol Mangi, Ghazala Parveen Abbasi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Development and Social Sciences Fri, 17 May 2024 00:00:00 +0500