Livelihoods Diversification in Mountain Communities: Drivers of Change in Galiyat, Abbottabad, Pakistan
Keywords:Adaptation, Livelihood Diversification, Mountain Communities, Rural Livelihoods
This paper attempts to examine traditional livelihood practices and diversification strategies in mountain communities of Galiyat Pakistan. Three purposively selected villages were used as a study site. The study used both quantitative and qualitative techniques of household questionnaires, in-depth interviews, field observations, and key informant interviews for data collection. The data was analyzed and presented through descriptive statistics and diversification indices. The study indicates that agriculture was the mainstay of the economy at all three study sites. Out-migrations and limited government and private sector jobs were major off-farm activities. Diversification strategies adopted over time are highly site site-specific and include deactivation, abandonment, and intensification of agriculture. Climate change and the tourism industry are the most important factors for survival and opportunity-led diversification strategies. Both increase and decrease in out-migration were observed at the study sites inspired by such diversification. The study concludes that increased tourism activities appeared to be an important diversification strategy that could help improve people’s living standard to a great deal. There is a need for public and private sector interventions, thereby making the small business and other innovation a survival strategy of the local community.
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