Hybrid Democracy in Pakistan: A Case Study of The PDM Government


  • Sajjad Gul PhD Scholar, Department of Political Science in University of Campania, Caserta, Italy
  • Habib Ali Lecturer, Department of Basic Sciences and Related Studies, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Campus Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan




Democracy, Government, Hybrid, Pakistan, PDM


This research venture investigates the experiences of hybrid democracy during the reign of Pakistan Democratic Movement (PDM). The study also aims to address the challenges faced by the PDM government’s hybrid democratic setup from 2022 to 2023, and its repercussions for the future of democracy in Pakistan. The historical process of democracy in Pakistan has frequently been the focus of discussions about its structure, dual nature, operation, and derailment for a variety of reasons. Understanding their experiences, difficulties, and prospects is a crucial component of this dissertation to comprehend the hybrid nature of the democratic system of the Pakistan Democratic Movement (PDM). The nature of this study is descriptive. Data collected from primary and secondary sources are reviewed and analyzed using qualitative approach of research. The in-depth interviews from participants were also conducted that helped to address the core of this issue. The findings of this research show that the historical democratic mechanism in Pakistan has been very complex. The study shows that the hybrid nature of democracy in Pakistan during the PDM government has seen reasonable civil-military relations, and indirect military interventions that resulted in a host of challenges for the likely future of democracy in Pakistan. The findings of research also found various success, failures, and difficulties, and potentials of a hybrid democratic system in Pakistan under the PDM administration. In a nutshell, the findings also show that Pakistan's hybrid democracy under the PDM government was chaotic and authoritarian, leading to an economic crisis and restrictions on the right to dissent.





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How to Cite

Gul, S., & Ali, H. (2023). Hybrid Democracy in Pakistan: A Case Study of The PDM Government. Journal of Development and Social Sciences, 4(4), 104–113. https://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2023(4-IV)10